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Accident Proneness A Conceptual Analysis Essay

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Accident proneness a conceptual analysis essay

Accident-proneness is the conception that some people have a predispositions to be more likely to have accident s, such as car crash es and industrial injuries. than other people. It may be used as a reason to deny an insurance .

The early work on this subject dates back to 1919, in a study by Greenwood and Woods, who studied workers at a British munitions factory and found that accidents were unevenly distributed among workers, with a relatively small proportion of workers account for most of the accidents. [Greenwood, M. and Woods, H.M. (1919) The incidence of industrial accidents upon individuals with special reference to multiple accidents. "Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Medical Research Committee", Report No. 4. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. ] Further work on accident-proneness was carried out in the 1930s and 1940s.

The subject is still being studied actively. Research into accident-proneness is of great interest in safety engineering. where human factors such as pilot error, or errors by nuclear plant operators, can have massive effects on the reliability and safety of a system.

Statistical evidence clearly demonstrates that different individuals can have different rates of accidents from one another; for example, young male drivers are the group at highest risk for being involved in car accidents. There also seems to be substantial variation in personal accident rates between individuals.

However, a number of studies have cast doubt on whether accident-proneness actually exists as a "distinct, persistent and independently verifiable" physiological or psychological syndrome. Although substantial research has been devoted to this subject, there still seems to be no conclusive evidence either for or against the existence of accident proneness in this sense.

The exact nature and causes of accident-proneness, assuming that it exists as a distinct entity, are unknown. Factors which have been considered as associated with accident-proneness have included absent-mindedness. clumsiness. carelessness. impulsivity. predisposition to risk-taking. and unconscious desire s to create accidents as a way of achieving secondary gain s.

* Accident investigation
* Diathesis-stress model
* Human factors

"Note: this article is partly based on public domain text from the U.S. government public domain document "Accident Proneness: A Research Review"

* [http://stinet.dtic.mil/oai/oai?&verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA266032 Rodgers, Mark D. and Blanchard, Robert E. "Accident Proneness: A Research Review". Federal Civil Aeromedical Institute Report DOT/FAA/AM-93-9, March 2003. ]
* [http://www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/content/abstract/6/1/88 Arnold J. Rawson. Accident Proneness. "Psychosomatic Medicine" 6:88-94 (1944) ]
* [http://www.tara.tcd.ie/bitstream/2262/4638/1/jssisiVolXXPart5_152171.pdf W. L. Cresswell and P. Frogatt. Accident Proneness, or Variable Accident Tendency? Dublin: "Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland", Vol. XX, Part V, 1961/1962, pp152-171 ]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0006-341X(195112)7%3A4%3C340%3AASATCO%2.0.CO%3B2-K Accident Statistics and the Concept of Accident-Proneness ]
* [http://www.iprr.org/papers/aaam.html Accident Theories and Their Implications for Research ]

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Accident proneness

Accident proneness

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Accident proneness is a loose term used to describe why a person has an increased likilihood of being involved in accidents. The implication is that they may be contributing to the cause of the accidents, either consciously or unconsciously.

However accident prone individuals may have more accidents due to structural aspects of their lives, like working in dangerous environments, driving long distances etc.

While of course somebody has to be on the long tail of the frequency distribution. They may just be unlucky.

Early work Edit

The early work on this subject dates back to 1919, in a study by Greenwood and Woods, who studied workers at a British munitions factory and found that accidents were unevenly distributed among workers, with a relatively small proportion of workers accounting for most of the accidents. [1] Further work on accident-proneness was carried out in the 1930s and 1940s.

Current work Edit

The subject is still being studied actively. Research into accident-proneness is of great interest in safety engineering. where human factors such as pilot error, or errors by nuclear plant operators, can have massive effects on the reliability and safety of a system. One of the areas of most interest is the Aeronautical area, where accidents have been reviewed from psychological and human factors, to mechanical and technical failures. There has been many conclusive studies, that present that human factor has great influence on the results of those occurrences.

Statistical evidence Edit

Statistical evidence clearly demonstrates that different individuals can have different rates of accidents from one another; for example, young male drivers are the group at highest risk for being involved in car accidents. There also seems to be substantial variation in personal accident rates between individuals.

Doubt Edit

However, a number of studies have cast doubt on whether accident-proneness actually exists as a distinct, persistent and independently verifiable physiological or psychological syndrome. Although substantial research has been devoted to this subject, there still seems to be no conclusive evidence either for or against the existence of accident proneness in this sense.

Nature and causes Edit

The exact nature and causes of accident-proneness, assuming that it exists as a distinct entity, are unknown. Factors which have been considered as associated with accident-proneness have included absent-mindedness. carelessness. impulsivity. predisposition to risk -taking, and unconscious desires to create accidents as a way of achieving secondary gains.

See also Edit References Edit See also Edit References & Bibliography Edit
  1. ↑ Greenwood, M. and Woods, H.M. (1919) The incidence of industrial accidents upon individuals with special reference to multiple accidents. Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Medical Research Committee. Report No. 4. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Key texts Edit Books Edit Papers Edit Additional material Edit

Accident-proneness explained

Accident-proneness explained

Accident-proneness. also known as clumsiness. is the conception that some people might have predisposition, or that they might be more likely to suffer accident s, such as car crash es and industrial injuries. than other people. It may be used as a reason to deny any insurance on such individuals. [1]

Early work

The early work on this subject dates back to 1919, in a study by Greenwood and Woods, who studied workers at a British munitions factory and found that accidents were unevenly distributed among workers, with a relatively small proportion of workers accounting for most of the accidents. [2] Further work on accident-proneness was carried out in the 1930s and 1940s.

Present study

The subject is still being studied actively. Research into accident-proneness is of great interest in safety engineering. where human factors such as pilot error, or errors by nuclear plant operators, can have massive effects on the reliability and safety of a system.One of the areas of most interest and more profound research is the Aeronautical area, where accidents have been reviewed from psychological and human factors, to mechanical and technical failures. There has been many conclusive studies, that present that human factor has great influence on the results of those occurrences.

Statistical evidence

Statistical evidence clearly demonstrates that different individuals can have different rates of accidents from one another; for example, young male drivers are the group at highest risk for being involved in car accidents. There also seems to be substantial variation in personal accident rates between individuals.

However, a number of studies have cast doubt on whether accident-proneness actually exists as a distinct, persistent and independently verifiable physiological or psychological syndrome. Although substantial research has been devoted to this subject, there still seems to be no conclusive evidence either for or against the existence of accident proneness in this sense.

Nature and causes

The exact nature and causes of accident-proneness, assuming that it exists as a distinct entity, are unknown. Factors which have been considered as associated with accident-proneness have included absent-mindedness. clumsiness, carelessness. impulsivity. predisposition to risk -taking, and unconscious desires to create accidents as a way of achieving secondary gains.Broad studies on the speed and accuracy using a specially designed test sheet of finding a specific figure on various people as Japanese, Brazil born Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Spanish, Filipinos, Thai and Central Americans with different educational backgrounds. The studies have revealed that educational background or study experience is the key factor of concentration capability. Screening new employees using this test gave drastic decrease of work accidents in several companies. [3]

Further reading
  • Web site: Rodgers, Mark D. Blanchard, Robert E. Accident Proneness: A Research Review. March 2003. Federal Civil Aeromedical Institute Report DOT/FAA/AM-93-9.
  • Arnold J. Rawson. Accident Proneness. Psychosomatic Medicine. 6. 1. 88–94. 1944.
  • Cresswell, W.L. Frogatt, P. Accident Proneness, or Variable Accident Tendency?. Journal of the Statistical and Social Inquiry Society of Ireland. XX. V. 152–171. 1961–1962. PDF.
  • Arbous, A.G.; Kerrich, J.E.. Accident Statistics and the Concept of Accident-Proneness. Biometrics. 7. 4. 340–432. December 1951. 3001656. 10.2307/3001656.
  • Benner Jr. Ludwig. Crash Theories and the Implications for Research. American Association of Automotive Medicine Quarterly Journal. 1. 1. January 1979.
Notes and References
  1. http://www.insurancecompanies.com/insider-information-how-insurance-companies-measure-risk/
  2. Greenwood, M. and Woods, H.M. (1919) The incidence of industrial accidents upon individuals with special reference to multiple accidents. Industrial Fatigue Research Board, Medical Research Committee. Report No. 4. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  3. Web site: 創造性テスト、薬不要の風邪治療(妊婦、アスリート、NSAID)、適性テスト. F6.dion.ne.jp. 2015-08-15.

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Conceptual analysis Questions and Essay Paper by

Conceptual analysis Questions and Essay.

1. Model Case (a ) An estimator in the construction industry used to take one to two days just to finish computing how much a small project would cost before he could give his client a good price. Nowadays. this same person can actually prepare a proposal in just 15 minutes through the aid of a computer. Software programmed to estimate the cost of materials for projects have resulting amount has also been increased due to the elimination of too many possible miscalculations due to human error. The use of software that can compute

on its own has definitely relieved estimators of the long hours dedicated to calculating and rechecking their work so much that it has allowed these employees more time to attend to other responsibilities. More attention to other tasks has enabled companies to reduce their labor force and cut down on cost while gaining more profit (b ) - Quicker estimating time in minutes vs. days or weeks

- accurate price information vs. estimates prone to human error

- efficient on-time computing - faster results - multi-tasking able

- less labor cost and therefore higher profits gained

- more clients served in shorter time

- more satisfied clients because of the speed of delivery

- better marketing strategies created

- estimators given more responsibilites

- Logical with just a few input of data

Multi-tasking Responsibility 2. Contrary Case (a )Within a few minutes. the CIA. the State Department. and other government and private computer systems such as those of Ford and Time-Warner have been infected by the I Love You Virus ' A simple creation by students who thought it was a good prank at first. this love bug has crippled and brought the world at its feet for a few hours as it infected Microsoft s. Although it was more of an annoying disruption because of the furor it caused in everybody 's email. it managed to irritate the earth in such a quick time. Anti-virus companies scrambled to their feet and took about six hours to find a way to halt its spread. Six precious hours taunted the defense agencies of the most powerful country on earth. just because of a computer love bug. Not even the most complex security systems were able to protect itself (b ) - Man has become over-reliant to computers

- A simple prank could cause trouble to fortified agencies

- Anti-virus companies can only cure PCs with virus that they recognize

- solutions are not always readily available to infected computers

- a simple virus attack can weaken the world

- computers are not protected unless man himself secures it

A young businessman felt he was on top of the world because he was able to do everything he needed on his laptop and this granted him more mobility to enjoy working outside of his secluded office. However. one day. he fell.

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Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis

Accident proneness, does it exist? A review and meta-analysis
  • Ellen Visser a. . ,
  • Ysbrand J. Pijl a ,
  • Ronald P. Stolk b ,
  • Jan Neeleman a ,
  • Judith G.M. Rosmalen a
  • a Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
  • b Clinical Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Received 13 March 2006, Revised 8 September 2006, Accepted 26 September 2006, Available online 13 November 2006

Accident related health problems have been suggested to cluster within persons. This phenomenon became known as accident proneness and has been a subject of many discussions. This study provides an overview of accident proneness. Therefore, 79 articles with empirical data on accident rates were identified from databases Embase, Medline, and Psychinfo. First, definitions of accidents varied highly, but most studies focused on accidents resulting in injuries requiring medical attention. Second, operationalisations of accident proneness varied highly. Studies categorised individuals into groups with ascending accident rates or made non-accident, accident, and repetitive accident groups. Third, studies examined accidents in specific contexts (traffic, work, and sports) or populations (children, students, and patients). Therefore, we concluded that no overall prevalence rate of accident proneness could be given due to the large variety in operationalisations. However, a meta-analysis of the distribution of accidents in the general population showed that the observed number of individuals with repeated accidents was higher than the number expected by chance. In conclusion, accident proneness exists, but its study is severely hampered by the variation in operationalisations of the concept. In an effort to reach professional consensus on the concept, we end this paper with recommendations for further research.

  • Accident proneness ;
  • Accident ;
  • Review ;
  • Meta-analysis

Corresponding author. Tel. +31 50 3612032/2079; fax: +31 50 3619722.

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