The great Buddha once said, “The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly” (Jonathan, How to Live in the Present). Unfortunately, humanity today doesn’t always conform to that statement. The human race generally hates chaos and disorganization in any shape or form. That being said, humans love to plan ahead and look to the past to avoid future mistakes.Typically this is fine to do, since everybody does it at some point in their life, but its when you begin to over think the events of the past or the future that it becomes a problem. When you overthink and stress about events in the past then you are unable to move on and it begins to control what you say and do everyday of your life. While overthinking the future doesn’t have such dramatic effects, it does create more stress, which is not good for both your mental and physical health. Life moves too fast to be worrying about the past or the future, so just stick to the present because you may end up regretting it later on in life. If you’re always planning ahead and making plans for what you are doing tomorrow, then you are probably doing today what you had planned yesterday, meaning that you aren’t actually living for today, but for tomorrow. Thats not living in the moment, not even remotely close.
The past is something that we all dwell on once in a while, but there are some people out there who cannot let go of the past and thus are controlled by it. A normal person typically moves on from the past and leaves it behind them, but some may become traumatized by something that may have happened in their past or may feel like they may be judged because of their past. Say s.
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. The Importance Of Living In The Moment.” EliteDaily.com. Life, 20 Dec. 2013. Web. 07 May, 2014.
Jonathan. ”How to live in the Present.” PaidtoExist.com. Self Development, n.d. Web. 07 May, 2014.
“Don’t let Past Relationships and Old Mistakes ruin your Future.” LessonsLearnedinLife.com. Quote of the Day, 15 March, 2014. Web. 07 May, 2014.
“How Worrying Affects your Body.” WebMD.com. Health & Balance, n.d. Web. 07 May, 2014.
“Leave it Behind.” Essential-Practices.com. n.p, n.d. Web. 07 May, 2014.
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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The development of science education in the United States is said to have been pushed by a perceived lack and deficiency with laggard innovations in science and the declining quality of students the science curriculum has produced. Reforms in the science curriculum in the past were triggered by Soviet Union's Sputnik launch and how the event placed the US behind their Russian counterparts (Matthews, 1994). Today, in the era of globalization, a growing concern is the declining standards and performance of American students in mathematics and science. The challenge falls upon the entire American education system to ensure scientific literacy among its citizens and equip them with the scientific competency to become productive members of a democratic society.
This paper discusses the evolution of science education in the United States in order to evaluate how the science teacher or educator could initiate reforms in the classroom or the systemic setting.
Science Education: The Past
It is a common perception among students that science is a difficult and "deplorable" subject in school (Krehbiel, 1999). Responsibility has fallen upon policy-makers and science teachers to make the sciences more appealing to students. As Stephen Jay Gould said, "We think that science is intrinsically hard, scary, or arcane, and that teachers can only beat the necessary knowledge, by threat and exhortation, into a small minority born with inborn propensity" (as cited in Osborne, 2007, p. 117). Why has science education acquired this brand or label as a seemingly impossible subject which only a handpicked few could appreciate and comprehend?
The history of science education suggests that the rigidity, prescriptive curriculum, and standardized form of science teaching as a subject based on "memorization of facts" on a very wide range of science content might have contributed to this perception (Matthews, 1994). The standardization of science teaching in the late 1800s was undertaken in order to address the problem of the lack of qualified science teachers. The school curriculum concept grew out of the London School Board in the United Kingdom in 1870, prompting the training of science teachers who can ably teach science courses to the general public. In the United States, the standardization of science education came in the 1890s and there was a great debate on what ideology should guide the school science curriculum: citizen science or professional training. In 1892, a group called the Committee of Ten was tasked by the National Education Association (NEA) to make recommendations for a school science curriculum. This committee emphasized on science teaching as a citizen science that is important in grooming professional scientists in the future. As a result, the entire American education system applied the curriculum recommended by this Committee (Wallace and Loughran, 2003). The emphasis was theoretical and stressed on the teaching of facts and principles of the disciplines. The approach was foundationalist, where the curriculum attempts to make the future scientist learn all the basic concepts of every science discipline. Cohen opines that the tradition of attempting to "make students memorize a series of dry facts" was impractical because "no practicing scientist readily memorizes such as the density of various substances, the atomic weight of different chemical elementsâ€¦ the distance in light years from the Earth to various stars (and so on)" (as cited in Osborne, 2007, p. 173). This tradition still dominates science education today, but has also been challenged with the introduction of other ideologies to guide science teaching. One is the applied approach where science is taught in relation to how everyday things function and contribute to society, and the liberal or humanistic approach, where emphasis is given on the implications of science in a historical and cultural sense (Matthews, 1994).
Science Education: The Present
The same concerns still exist in science education today. Attitudes toward science and mathematics among students remain negative and parental support for a science-geared education has declined (Osborne, 2007). K-12 science educators in many states in the US still follow the rigid, theoretical tradition in science teaching and conform strictly to the curriculum and content prescribed among age groups. Policy makers and education lobbyists have expressed concern that emphasis on facts and theories have resulted to teachers who merely "cover" the material, without "teaching" the material. The process of science is overlooked and the student fails to develop critical thinking skills and appreciation for the scientific method. Osborne (2007) articulates the tension in science teaching today. She argues that the science curriculum is geared at developing future scientists, hence, the stress on factual and theoretical presentation on a wide range of content. This contributes to the perception that becoming competent in science is practical only to students who want to pursue a career in the sciences someday. The aim of scientific literacy for all citizens is missed if this kind of thinking is not corrected. According to Krehbiel (1999), science teachers have the responsibility of clarifying to students that science competency is not only suited for the future scientist, it is also beneficial to non-scientists. Scientific literacy contributes to the development of problem-solving skills that greatly benefit non-scientists and can be applied in everyday life.
Science education development today wants to enhance the competency of teachers. Teachers are central to the development of scientific literacy which is the end goal of science education (Osborne, 2007). Their qualifications and their attitudes play a great role in accomplishing this mission. State Boards have specific requirements and credentials for science teachers. Studies have shown that teachers who possess subject-specific degrees are better qualified to influence positive science outcomes among students than those who do not (Cronginer et al. 2003). However, secondary characteristics such as teacher's attitudes and belief systems play a major role in motivating students to learn. Wallace & Loughran (2003) suggest that there are many factors that contribute to the belief systems of science teachers, such as social pressure (or the need to conform to prescribed methods of instruction) and the "apprenticeship of observation" (or the mirroring of style of teaching they experienced as students in their science classes).
Attitudes about practice reflect upon a science teacher's teaching style, which in turn influence comprehension. Teachers who consider themselves as "transmitters" of knowledge apply a teacher-centered style of instruction where the main goal is the delivery of the content or subject matter (Wallace & Loughran, 2003). A teacher who espouses this tradition adheres strictly to the organization of content while the needs of students are secondary considerations only. Lesson plans are designed to conform to prescribed content with no concern for student readiness or aptitude. Wallace and Loughran (2003) identify this method as the most dominant form in science teachers. An alternative style is the "student-centered" method which focuses primarily student's comprehension. A teacher who practices this style first considers his or her students' prior knowledge or aptitude before planning lessons and concentrates on forming social interactions or collaborative relationships with students (Wallace & Loughran, 2003).
Science Education: The Future
If the international rankings of American students in science and mathematics are predictive of the quality of science education, then there are great challenges to be overcome in the near future. As American students lag behind their European and Asian counterparts in science competency, reforms in policy and corporate support are today heavily emphasized to produce more globally competitive students in the future. Microsoft founder Bill Gates has contributed billions to encourage students to take science course in college. Organizations such as Tapping America's Potential provide scholarships for more students to graduate with degrees in science, mathematics, and engineering (Osborne, 2007).
In the education system, policy reforms are also under way. In 1996, the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment (NCSESA) came up recommendations on how to better produce more scientifically literate students for the future. Standards related to science teaching were presented in the book National Science Education Standards, such as:
The vision of science education described by the Standards requires changes throughout the entire system.
What students learn is greatly influenced by how they are taught.
The actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their perceptions of science as an enterprise and as a subject to be taught and learned.
Student understanding is actively constructed through individual and social processes.
Actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their understanding of and relationships with students. (p. 30)
Among the reforms in elementary and secondary science education emphasize on the need for "inquiry-based" and "hands-on" curriculum used in schools. It has been a major thrust advocated in the National Science Education Standards and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The development of science education has been made possible by the careful study of its past, an assessment of the present, and a positive outlook on the future. Remnants of the heavily theoretical orientation of science teaching of the 19th century are still practiced today. At present, there has been a noticeable decline in the competency of students in science and mathematics, pushing the drive for more reforms in science education. The recommendations, while focusing on the systemic need for science education reform, also highlight the important role of the science teacher in achieving better science outcomes among students. Teachers' competency, decisions about the content, peer interactions, behaviors, attitudes, and belief systems significantly influence students' comprehension, appreciation, and attitudes toward science.
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WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND HISTORY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT –Global Civilization—Yesterday, Today and
Tomorrow - David Wilkinson
GLOBAL CIVILIZATION—YESTERDAY, TODAY AND
Department of Political Science, UCLA, USA.
Keywords: Civilization, Central civilization, global civilization, globalization.
2. What is "a Civilization"?
3. Once There Were Many: A Partial Roster of Civilizations
4. Now One Remains: The Emergence of a Single Global Civilization
5. The Unification Process
6. What was the Advantage of Central Civilization? And of its "West"?
7. Was the Actual Course of the Globalization of Civilization Inevitable?
8. The Dialogues of Civilizations
9. Challenges for a Global Civilization
In defining "a civilization" we are forced to choose between a definition based upon
cultural homogeneity and transactional-network connectivity. In fact, only the network
concept is viable. Civilizations are strongly connected politico-military networks of
cities; they are also heterogeneous, culturally pluralistic. For most of the past of
civilization, there coexisted several such civilizations; today there is only one
civilization on the face of the earth. Like its predecessors, it is a multicultural citynetwork; unlike them, it is of global scope. The many became one by way of growth
processes, encounters, collisions and fusions, generally involving violence. Certain
problems observed in the present monocivilizational globe have precedents in the pasts
of its predecessors whose study might prove helpful: climate shifts, plagues and
environmental devastations come sharply to mind.
Despite theories of a "clash of civilizations" (S. Huntington) or programs for a "dialogue of
civilizations" (M. Khatami), there exists on the Earth today only one civilization, a single.