Dixy Lee Ray (September 3, 1914–January 2, 1994) was the 17th Governor of the U.S. State of Washington. She was Washington's first female governor.
She was born Marguerite Ray in Tacoma to Frances Adams Ray and Alvis Marion Ray (a commercial printer). [ 1 ] Marguerite was second in a family of five girls. At twelve, she changed her name to "Dixy Lee". She attended Tacoma's Stadium High School. graduated as valedictorian from Mills College in Oakland, California in 1937, and with a master's degree in 1938 with her thesis entitled "A Comparative Study of the Life Habits of Some Species of Burrowing Eumalacostraca ". She earned her PhD from Stanford University in Palo Alto. Her doctoral dissertation was "The peripheral nervous system of Lampanyctus leucopsarus ," completed in 1945 at the Hopkins Marine Station. Pacific Grove. California. [ 2 ]
From 1963 until 1972, Dr. Ray became the director of Seattle's Pacific Science Center. guiding its future after the founding as part of the 1962 World's Fair. An advocate of nuclear power. she was appointed by Richard Nixon to chair the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in 1973 and was the only woman to serve as chair of the AEC.
A Democrat, she won the governorship in Washington in 1976, but quickly astonished her supporters with her strongly conservative views. She was governor when Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980. She lost in the 1980 Democratic primary election to then-State Senator Jim McDermott. who went on to lose in the general election to moderate Republican John D. Spellman .
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) established an award in Dixy Lee Ray's honor for engineering contributions to the field of environmental protection in 1998. The award, which consists of a bronze medal with the governor's likeness and $1000 was first given to Clyde W. Frank in 1999 and has been made annually since. [ 4 ]
She co-authored two books critical of the environmentalist movement with Lou Guzzo. Her papers are archived at the Hoover Institution and are catalogued online. [ 5 ]
The quality of scholarship used for her first book "Environmental Overkill" has been called into question. A detailed critical analysis of the chapters on ozone depletion was published in a report by R. Parsons of the University of Colorado. [ 6 ]References
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This is Dixie Lee Ray\s and Lou Guzzo\s mindblowing book Environmental Overkill - Whatever Happened to Common Sense? (1993) which challenges the environmental prophets of doom and gloom with penetrating searing truth and exposes the fraud and deceit being perpetrated against an unknowing public. Dr. Dixy Lee Ray illustrates how good stewardship of the environment, scientific honesty, and even constitutional liberties based on property rights are being consciously endangered by environmental extremists, scare-mongering journalists, media-conscious scientists, \visionary\ politicians, power-hungry bureaucrats, big business leaders, and rapacious lawyers. Who loses? We all do, especially when we allow the people who actually live on the land - small farmers, fishermen, people who live in the open spaces - to have their livelihoods, and indeed their very towns and communities, callously prosecuted into oblivion by lawyers and bureaucrats in Washington. The authors tell you what actually happened at the Earth Summit in Rio and also take a close look at the environmentalism of former US Vice President Al Gore. Above all, this book will help you make your own informed decisions on air pollution, global warming, endangered species, wetlands, overpopulation, and other contentious environmental issues. For readers who want to understand the scientific and political realities of environmental issues, Environmental Overkill is the best and most straightforward analysis around as it exposes the hard truth that the agenda and goals of political environmentalism are antithetical to conscientiousness, responsibility, enlightenment or humanity. 250 pages. A must read for everyone.related torrents
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She was born Marguerite Ray in Tacoma to Frances Adams Ray and Alvis Marion Ray (a commercial printer). [ 1 ] Marguerite was second in a family of five girls. In 1930 she changed her name to "Dixy Lee". She attended Tacoma's Stadium High School. graduated as valedictorian from Mills College in Oakland, California in 1937, and with a master's degree in 1938 with her thesis entitled "A Comparative Study of the Life Habits of Some Species of Burrowing Eumalacostraca ". She earned her PhD from Stanford University in Palo Alto. Her doctoral dissertation was "The peripheral nervous system of Lampanyctus leucopsarus ," completed in 1945 at the Hopkins Marine Station. Pacific Grove. California. [ 2 ]Academic career
Ray was a marine biologist and taught at the University of Washington from 1947 until 1972. In 1952 she received a prestigious John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellowship grant for Biology. [ 3 ]
From 1963 until 1972, Dr. Ray became the director of Seattle's Pacific Science Center. guiding its future after the founding as part of the 1962 World's Fair. An advocate of nuclear power. she was appointed by Richard Nixon to chair the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in 1973 and was the only woman to serve as chair of the AEC.Political career
Ray was elected governor of Washington in 1976 as a Democrat. She quickly astonished her supporters [ who? ] with her strongly conservative views. She was governor when Mount St. Helens started volcanic activity after a 123 year dormant or inactive phase. As volcanic activity increased, the mountain attracted scientists and sightseers. On April 3, 1980, she declared a state of emergency and urged people to stay away from the mountain. This declaration allowed the National Guard to assist State Patrol troopers and sheriffs deputies from Cowlitz County and Skamania County. Ray also issued an executive order that restricted access to extremely dangerous areas of Mount St. Helens and its surrounds. [ 4 ] The "red zone" restrictions would be credited by Forest Service respondents to a post-eruption 'Warning and Response Survey' with keeping between 5,000 and 30,000 potential decedents out of the blast area. [ 5 ]
In 1980, she lost in the Democratic primary election to then-State Senator Jim McDermott. who went on to lose in the general election to moderate Republican John D. Spellman. Ray left the governor's office in January 1981 when her successor took the Oath of Office.Death and legacy
Dixie Lee Ray died on January 2, 1994 at Fox Island, Washington .
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) established an award in Dixy Lee Ray's honor for engineering contributions to the field of environmental protection in 1998. The award, which consists of a bronze medal with the governor's likeness and $1000 was first given to Clyde W. Frank in 1999 and has been made annually since. [ 6 ]
She co-authored two books critical of the environmentalist movement with Lou Guzzo. Her papers are archived at the Hoover Institution and are catalogued online. [ 7 ]Further reading
The author of Trashing the Planet and media commentator Guzzo offer a straightforward analysis that helps readers understand the scientific and political realities of environmental issues and make their own informed decisions about global warming,More The author of Trashing the Planet and media commentator Guzzo offer a straightforward analysis that helps readers understand the scientific and political realities of environmental issues and make their own informed decisions about global warming, pollution, endangered species, and other environmental issues. LessGet a copy Friends’ Reviews
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Anthony rated it did not like it
about 5 years ago
Sheer conservative ideology. reading this book in current times makes for good laughs. They believe the issue of ozone depletion from CFCs was played up, that climate change was a debunkable art, and that much of the alarmism from environmentalists is sheer nonsense. Fu. Read full review
Amanda rated it really liked it
Thoughtfully presented information that is well cited. Not sure I agree with every conclusion, but the author considered data on a cost vs benefit scale rather than an emotional scale. The copy I read was copyrighted in the early/mid 90s, so I'd be interested in an update. Read full review
Jennifer Braxton marked it as to-read
about 7 years ago
This is the ONLY anti-environmentally active book I own. I figured, just to be in good faith, I should own at least one book that talks about the other side of the spectrum (ie. no such thing as global warming, who cares about recycling, etc. ). Needless to say, I still. Read full review
Anne Marie rated it really liked it
over 3 years ago
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Diseases need heroes: men or women who have triumphed despite the disease. For the child with polio, one could always point to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who campaigned on leg braces.
Abstract Dr. Dixy Lee Ray grew up near the sea in Washington State. As a girl she was a scholar and a champion athlete--at age 12 she was the youngest person to scale Mt. Rainier, America\'s highest mountain. Her love of the sea drove her to earn a doctorate in Marine Biology ;she had her own television show while teaching at the university, and led an international scientific expedition. Dixy Lee became the first woman to head
Woodrow Wilson 2
Diseases need heroes: men or women who have triumphed despite the disease. For the child with polio, one could always point to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who campaigned on leg braces.
the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and, later, the first woman to be elected governor of the State of Washington. Dr. Ray was a person who went from an academic world as a researcher in marine biology, to the Atomic Energy Commission focused on nuclear energy, and then into politics during a time that women were still fighting for equal rights in a man’s world. This paper will probe the early years to help explain what led her
Overly Acidified Precipitation - A Major Problem in the Making?
Overly Acidified Precipitation - A Major Problem in the Making? Henryk Jaronowski Spring '98 Period 2 Mr. Congelli Overly acidified precipitation and its ramifications are, according to.
to become a marine biologist. To understand the processes she went through to reach that goal and the hardships she endured to achieve her degree. Additionally, explore her early years as a scientist, her goals and accomplishments as well as her recognitions, as well as her time as the Chair of the Atomic Energy Commission and what led her to run for the governorship of the State of Washington. Dr. Ray broke through the glass-ceiling for
women in leadership through the ups and downs of being a woman in science and politics, and blazed trails for future women scientists and politicians. The Early Life Dixy Lee Ray was born on September 3, 1914 in Tacoma, Washington. She was the second of five daughters to Frances Adam and Alvis Ray (Guzzo, 1980). She was christened Margaret at birth but never but used that name. Her family called her “that little dickens,” soon shortened
Woodrow Wilson Story
Woodrow Wilson Story In September, 1919, Wilson suffered a paralytic stroke which limited.
to “Dick.” She used that nickname through grade school, but in sixth grade renamed herself for her favorite region, discarding the spelling of “Dixie” as too sissified. The “Lee” is for the Confederate general, a distant relative. She legally changed her name at the age of 18. (Duncan, Matassa, & Simon, 1994) Dixy’s father had a very bad temper which got worse when he drank too much. When he got mad he would get
The Woodrow Wilson Story
The Woodrow Wilson Story In September, 1919, Wilson suffered a paralytic stroke which limited.
a stick and Dixy was hit many times with his stick. When things would get bad she would escape to the beach near her home. She loved to watch the tiny fish and wonder what they ate that must be smaller than them. She wanted to know all about everything that lived in the sea. (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985) At the age of 12, Dixy wanted to climb the highest mountain in America, Mount Rainier. She didn’t know if she could do it. But she knew if she didn’t try, she would never know. So she did try and she succeeded. Dixy set the record for the youngest girl to ever climb to the top of Mount Rainier (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985). As Dixy grew up, she learned to make puppets. She and her sisters would put on puppet shows about fairytales. The shows were so well done that people paid them to perform. Her mother would drive her and her sisters to churches, schools, and theaters where they were paid to perform and people were waiting in line for the shows. Dixy liked the feeling of independence that earning her own money gave her (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985). In high school, Dixy joined the Debate Club and the Speaker’s Club. Here she honed the skills that she would use later in life. She also participated in every sport available to girls and won more medals in swimming meets than any other swim team member. She was a straight “A” student in all her classes. Her teachers encouraged her to pursue college but she knew that her parents could not afford to send her to college. So she set out a plan to make college a reality. She first strived for good grades to make her eligible for scholarships to help pay for part of her tuition. She graduated from Tacoma’s Stadium High School with honors and received several scholarship offers but chose to go to Mills College, a women’s college in Oakland, California, where she graduated as valedictorian in 1937 (Answers.com) and won her Phi Beta Kappa key at graduation (Guzzo, 1980). While she was in college she worked as a janitor, a telephone operator, and a waitress to pay the rest of her expenses (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985). Academic Career Although Dixy began her college career studying drama and theater, she soon switched course to science. Her fascination with the creatures of the sea and tide pools as a child prompted her to change to marine biology. Dixy had to make every penny count in college as she had nothing coming to her from home. She wanted to escape the terrible economic stress back home and to prove she could do something without their help. She missed a lot of sleep because of working but never missed a class. She always managed to pay her debts just in time to start the next year and the collage gave her all the time she needed to do so (Guzzo, 1980). When she entered Mills College she had no fixed idea about a career even though she had a great love of the sea. It was a gentle Scotsman named Alexander Pringle Jameson who coaxed her into a lifetime career of marine biology. Working with Dr. Jameson was one of the greatest joys of her life. His guidance and firm judgment helped her lead her class in honors at Mills where she then took her Master’s and then went on to Stanford University a few years later for her Ph.D. after she had saved enough money to become a student again in search of the elusive doctorate. Dr. Jameson was also the one who advised her, “Get your teaching credentials right away because you will have a much better chance of finding work. It will also give you a chance to think about going on with your studies at graduate school” (Guzzo, 1980). Dixy graduated from Mill’s in 1937 and received her Master’s degree in zoology and a teaching certificate the following year. She liked teaching and remained in Oakland until 1942, teaching science in public schools and working part-time on her doctoral degree by traveling to Stanford University’s Hopkins Marine Biological Station in Pacific Groves on weekends. She was only one of the nine hired to teach out the 324 that graduated from University of California (300) and Mills (24) in the Oakland-San Francisco area. She was assigned to Oakland High School, where she taught for four years before she had enough money to go to Stanford for her Ph.D. in marine biology. The Oakland school system appeared to have no young teachers, as it insisted on hiring only those with extensive experience. The average age of teachers was between the ages of 50 to 55. But one teacher, the biology teacher, saw Dixy’s potential when she practice taught the previous year and gave her high marks. This went against the standard perception that one had to prove themselves in another district before being hired into the Oakland school system (Guzzo, 1980). Dixy taught biology and a few other courses that had emphasis on biology. She had a “show me” style of teaching, in which the student and teacher would work out the problems with hands and heads in the classroom, not trying to memorize text. She believed that every classroom should be a learning laboratory with the textbooks as supplement tools. Though the school had laboratory space and equipment that no one used, there was very little budget for supplies and specimens. So as in Dixy’s nature, she took charge making use of the lab by scheduling regular lab sessions, collecting her own specimens, and developing simple equipment the students could make and use for experiments. Dixy became a heroine to her students because for the first time they were being challenged to think and us their hands and bodies. Her popularity with the students grew while her stock with the other teachers hit bottom. She was determined to teach there until she reached tenure and then get out. One had to have three years teaching and then if you were hired for the fourth year you acquired tenure. And that is exactly what she did. By the time she had the four years in, she had enough money to go to graduate school for her Ph.D. (Guzzo, 1980). With the money she saved and a fellowship that she received, in 1942-43 Dixy pursued her doctorate on a full-time basis. In 1945 she received her Ph.D. from Stanford University. Dixy was happiest when she as researching, testing, experimenting, finding things out for herself, and helping others find out things too (Guzzo, 1980). After receiving her Ph.D. she took a position in the zoology faculty at the University of Washington (UW) (Answers.com). Young Scientist Once Dixy decided upon her career in the marine sciences, she set her sights on research at or near the sea. Teaching had not entered her mind, rather she shoved it aside to be a scientist but she was a teacher. She also felt that nature had not endowed her with all the things that turn young men’s heads. She knew she had a decent memory and brains and was determined to get her brain disciplined. Because of the influence of her father, she was determined to never become dependent upon anyone at any time. Though her sisters Marion and Alvista recall that Dixy had at least two or three budding romances, Dixy never permitted them to bloom as they would get in the way of her career and that she also never considered marital life because she was too ugly (Guzzo, 1980). At the UW, Dixy was one of those rare teachers who were extremely tough on her students, particularly grad students, but popular because she was gifted in the art of making the difficult sound simple. For her “the opportunity for a college education was so great a gift that she would put up with no backsliding or fooling around.” Her opinion was that they were not there for “fun and games” and she would caution anyone who failed to turn in a paper, refused to cooperate in research, or a class project (Guzzo, 1980). Dixy conducted one of the most successful marine-science symposiums on record at the university and published a book on the results though she detested the university’s “publish or perish” policy. This policy dictated promotions, salary increases, and even new appointments were based on the faculty member’s ability to publish the results of their research. The Navy became particularly interested in her “unpublished” research on tiny invertebrates that destroy piers, docks, seaside buildings, rafts, ships, and anything that comes in contact with the sea. As did the National Science Foundation, who invited her three times to join its Washington, D.C. staff for special research. She was making a name for herself in the invertebrate zoology. But in spite of the recognition from the Navy and marine circles everywhere she was sneered by her fellow faculty at UW who felt she couldn’t be “very productive if she’s not publishing.” The chauvinism hurt her deeply and since she was the only female faculty member in the Zoology or Botany departments, she accepted every invitation to visit marine-science laboratories all over the world and take leave of absences for U.S. Navy and Coast Guard work and National Science Foundation special projects (Guzzo, 1980). Pacific Science Center The autumn of 1963 Dixy was appointed director of the Pacific Science Center ;this would become her laboratory for one of the most significant research projects of her life. Her job was to make science interesting to everyone. She got new exhibits that children could touch and make them work. Thousands of people came to the Center because science was exciting (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985). Under her direction the Center evolved into a multipurpose facility, including a museum, laboratories, and a center for scientific symposia. She also developed a weekly televisions series entitled “Animals of the Sea,” which was quite popular. In 1967 Seattle named her its “Maritime Man of the Year” for her success in bringing science to the people (Answers.com). She held the directorship for nine years and is widely recognized for the survival of the Center (Biography.com). It wasn’t easy to sustain the Center. The Foundation barely provided the funds to keep the doors open. Dixy scratched for support wherever she could as well as frequently purchasing equipment and materials herself. She not only kept it from extinction but gave it life. It became an adjunct of public and private schools. Using her friendship of the state’s two powerful senators, Warren G. Magnuson and Henry M. Jackson, who she grew to know while serving stints on Capitol Hill for the National Science Foundation, she went after her goal to convert the Pacific Science Center into the Smithsonian Institution West which she knew they were contemplating decentralizing into several regions. Hearings on the proposal were producing the desired result until an educator cast doubt on the advisability of the venture, so the decision was delayed, and ultimately the project was shelved. Before accepting the Science Center position she told the center’s board of governors that she had already agreed to head a scientific expedition and they approved her participation without hesitation. Dr. Ray had been chosen to be the Chief Scientist on the expedition with scientists from all over the world to study the Indian Ocean on the Te Vega, meaning “The Star.” When she arrived she found it filthy and the engines didn’t work. The student helpers had decided they didn’t want to work very hard. Upon her arrival, Dixy took charge (Verheyden-Hilliard, 1985). Nothing she touched was remained routine, though this was to have been a routine expedition. First, defiance by an incompetent captain and engineer forced her to take over the ship in a legitimate mutiny. Second, a fire nearly destroyed the ship at sea. Third, continuing breakdowns in the ship’s machinery almost caused cancelation of the expedition. Fourth, a variety of illness of tropical nature hampered them. And fifth, a different kind of mutiny, in which some grad students turned on her because she tried to force them to work. Other than this, it was a rather uneventful trip (Guzzo, 1980) and a success. Atomic Energy Commission Passing through Washington, D.C. in April 1972, Dr. Ray was paged in the airport and a voice on the telephone said, “The White House is calling.” She thought it was a prank but is was Barbara Franklin, who was charged with hiring women for the Nixon Administration (Collier, 1974). The White House pursued her to take a position in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) because they wanted a woman scientist in the AEC and felt she was the right person for the job. The prospect of making $40,000 year was appealing to her. But she was a marine scientist not a nuclear physicist. Although, it was immensely flattering to have the President seek her out, she needed to consult with a few friends whose judgment she trusted. All her friends told her she was ideally suited for the position, no one advised her to reject the idea, and it was actually to become a turning point in her life (Guzzo, 1980). In 1972, President Richard M. Nixon appointed Dr. Dixy Lee Ray to the AEC. A marine biologist, not a nuclear physicist, seemed like an odd choice. But she was already deeply concerned about the nation’s energy supply and would bring to the position a keen interest in nuclear power (Answers.com). She acknowledged she had much to learn and spent three weeks traveling across the country in her new customized motor home to visit all the nuclear sites before starting her new job. The motor home suited her perfectly. It had ample work space, cleverly designed storage and dressing-room areas, all the bed she wanted, compact and remarkably efficient cooking and shower facilities, and room enough to entertain more than a dozen guests – which she did often over her three years in Washington, D.C. along with her constant companions, Ghillie, a massive Scottish Deerhound, size of a small horse, and Jacques, a Gaul, just barely larger than a Chihuahua (Guzzo, 1980). Dixy decided to live in her motor home while she was in Washington, D.C. She parked it in a farmer’s field just outside of the city, as she liked being in the country, and every day a chauffeur would drive up in a big black car and take her and her two dogs to the office. Dixy became one of the most popular commissioners the AEC had in its three-decade history – that is she was popular with workers, scientists, and engineers in the field. This was because of her “shakedown” land cruise she took before moving to her desk at the capital and her many visits she made after. She was the first and only commissioner to do this. She was frequently greeted with comments such as “You’re the first commissioner who has even bothered to come and see us and listen to our gripes” (Guzzo, 1980). Upon arrival to the AEC Headquarters in Germantown, Maryland, she again asked the question that she asked three weeks prior to Chairman James Schlesinger, “What does a commissioner do?” The response was “Just about anything you care to do. Your responsibilities as a
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