Ccea a2 biology coursework
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Ccea a2 biology coursework
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GCSE Biology is the study of living organisms and their structure, life-cycles, adaptations and environment. GCSEs and key stage 4 GCSE stands for General Certificate of Secondary Education. They were brought in in 1986 to replace O-levels and CSEs
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An investigation to find the water potential of potato and carrot tubers in a sucrose solution, of concentration 0.00 – 0.50Mol, over a 24 hour period
From our graph it can be seen that the concentration of sucrose solution is 0.18 M at 0% change in mass for the potato and 0.355 M at 0% change in mass for the carrot. I will use these values to find the solute potential by using the calibration graph. I will work out the water potential by using the equation, Ψ=Ψs +Ψp (Water Potential = Solute Potential + Pressure Potential). The Ψs of the potato at 0% change in mass is -500 kPa and the Ψs of the carrot at 0% change in mass is -1000 kPa. Through the use of our equation, the water potential of the potato and carrot are -500 kPa and -1000 kPa (respectfully) as in this case the solute potential equals the water potential as there is no pressure potential as the solution is open and it isn’t under a membrane so it is not under pressure. The Water Potential (Ψ) of the solution is equal to the Ψ of the tuber as there is no pressure potential.
As the concentration of the sucrose solution increases, the average percentage change in mass decreases in the potato tubers and this is the same as in the carrot tubers. At low concentrations of sucrose solutions (0.1 M) the mass of the carrot and potato tubers increases due to water moving into the protoplast of the cell from the sucrose solution by osmosis and at high concentrations of sucrose solutions (0.5 M) the mass of the carrot and potato tubers decreases due to water moving out of the protoplast of the cell to the sucrose solution by osmosis. At certain concentrations (0.18 M of the potato and 0.355 M for the carrot) the potato and carrot tubers don’t change in mass due to the water potential inside the cells equalling the water potential of the sucrose solution. My graph displays a distinct negative correlation; the higher the concentration of sucrose solution, the larger the difference between the mass over the 24 hour period becomes, and the smaller the mass gets. Osmosis is the movement of water from a high water potential to a low water potential across a semi-permeable membrane.
Osmosis is the net movement of water particles from areas of high water potential to areas of lower water potential across a semi-permeable membrane, such as the cell membrane. This can also be described as moving down a concentration gradient.
The water potential of a substance measures the amount of free energy that is available in an aqueous solution to cause the migration of water molecules during osmosis. The symbol for water potential is Ψ and is measured in kPa (kilo-pascals). The water potential of pure water is zero, as all the particles are free; this means that all particles contain kinetic energy and are under attractive forces, so they in constant random movement.
In relation to my results, at concentration 0.18M for the potato and 0.355M for the carrot, there is an osmotic balance between the potato and carrot cells and sucrose solution – the water potentials are equal. This is also known as an isotonic solution – where equilibrium is reached between the rates of osmosis in and out of a solution. Above this value, the solution becomes hypertonic (having a higher solute concentration than the potato and carrot), while below this value, the sucrose solution becomes hypotonic (having a lower solute concentration than the potato and carrot).
A hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of solutes compared to another solution, while a hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solutes compared to another solution. An isotonic solution has an identical concentration of solutes as another solution. These can also be described as having a lower, identical, and higher osmotic pressure, respectfully, than another solution.
I noticed that the hypertonic potato and carrot had become soft and.
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determine the waterpotential of potatotuber cells. Background knowledge Osmosis is defined as the movement of water molecules from a region of higher waterpotential to a region of lower waterpotential through a partially permeable membrane. Osmosis is considered in terms of waterpotential and solute potential . Waterpotential is a measure of the kinetic energy of water molecules. Here, water molecules are constantly moving in a random fashion. Some of them collides with cell membrane, cell wall, creating a pressure on it known as waterpotential . The higher their kinetic energy the more they move and hits the membrane, therefore higher the waterpotential . Waterpotential also depends on the number of molecules of water present. Solute restricts the movement of water . so a strong sugar solution with lots of solute particles will lower the kinetic energy and hence waterpotential . In osmosis water moves down a waterpotential gradient until the equilibrium is reached between two regions. The amount of solute molecule that lowers the water .
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the WaterPotential of a Potato . I have been asked to investigate the waterpotential of a potato . During my investigation I will not actually be able to measure a value for, as it is a pressure value (kPa). Osmosis is a special form of diffusion involving only water molecules. It is defined as "The passage of water from a region of high waterpotential to a region of low waterpotential through a partially permeable membrane" Definition of WaterPotential . The potential for water to move across a selectively permeable membrane, where the osmotic potential of distilled water is 0 (kPa) and any water movement is measured with a negative value. When a solute is mixed with a solvent the waterpotential will decrease, and will always be a negative value. Solute Potential . As the presence of a solute lowers the waterpotential . the more concentrated the solute is, the lower the waterpotential will be. Pressure Potential . This is if pressure where applied to a solution it would resist the movement of water . There is an equation that can represent to.
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Investigating the WaterPotential Of Potato Cells Aims 1. To test how waterpotential . in a solution . affects the movement of water in and out of a cell by osmosis Prediction I predict that by increasing the waterpotential around the outside of the potato cell, (i.e. so that the waterpotential is greater outside the cell compared to the inside of the cell e.g. 0m sucrose ) that the net movement of water into the cell will increase. This is due to the waterpotential being greater outside the cell compared to the inside of the cell, therefore water will diffuse into the cell by a process of osmosis. The opposite however will occur when the waterpotential outside the cell is lower than that inside the cell (i.e. with hypotonic solutions . such as a solution with a sucrose concentration of 1m and 0.75m). This is due to the waterpotential outside the cell being less than that inside the cell and therefore water moves out of the cell by osmosis. With a larger waterpotential gradient, more particles will move in order to balance the waterpotential in the cell and outside the.
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Measuring the Water Status of PotatoTubers Objectives: Upon completion of this laboratory you should be able to: 1. determine the waterpotential of a plant tissue by the Chardokov and gravimetric techniques and understand the underlying theory. 2. determine the osmotic potential of a plant extract by the freezing point depression method and understand the underlying theory. 3. describe techniques for measuring the pressure potential of a plant tissue. 4. describe techniques for measuring plant water status such as the pressure bomb, vapor pressure osmometer, and psychrometer. Introduction Waterpotential (Ψw, psi), which is a measure of the energy state of water is affected by dissolved solutes, pressure and matrix particles. The contribution to waterpotential by dissolved solutes, termed osmotic potential (Ψs ), is always negative in sign. In other words, solutes decrease the waterpotential . The contribution of pressure (Ψp) may be positive, negative or zero, but is generally positive since most plant cells are turgid (turgor pressure). The contribution due to the binding of water to colloidal particles (matric) and surfaces, termed matric potential (Ψm), also lowers the water .
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An investigation to measure the percentage light transmission, using a colorimeter, through a solution . from pH 2 – pH 9, in which jelly cubes were immersed over a 24hourperiod Interpretation Written Communication of the Data C1 Pepsin is an enzyme that works in the stomach and has an optimal pH between pH 1 and 4 or in acidic conditions. From our graph it can be seen that that the lowest mean percentage light transmission for pepsin is when the buffer has a pH of 2. Trypsin is an enzyme that works in the small intestine and has an optimum pH between pH 7 and 8 or in neutral conditions. From our graph it can be seen that the lowest mean percentage light transmission for trypsin is when the buffer has a pH of 8. C2 and C3 As the pH of the pepsin buffer increases from pH 2 to pH 9 so too does the percentage light transmission through the buffer solution after a 24hourperiod . Although when the trypsin buffer has a pH between pH 2 and 8 the percentage light transmission through the buffer solution after a 24hourperiod decreases, but from pH 8 to pH 9 the percentage light transmission through the buffer solution after a 24hourperiod increases. At a low pH (pH 2) the amount of gelatine broken down by the.
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EXERCISE 1C: Determining the WaterPotential of Potato Cells Introduction: Waterpotential was defined above as an expression of the tendency of water to diffuse from one region to another. Waterpotential is a numerical value that must be determined for a given temperature and pressure. In this exercise you will determine the waterpotential of potato cells at room temperature and ambient pressure by placing cores of potato tissue in sucrosesolutions of different concentrations and measuring the net movement of water in each case. In animal cells, movement of H2O into and out of a cell is influenced by the relative concentration of solute on either side of the cell membrane. If water moves out of the cell, the cell will shrink or crenate. If water moves into the cell it will swell and may even burst or cytolyze. In plant cells, the presence of a rigid cell wall prevents cells from bursting as water enters the cells, but pressure eventually builds up inside the cell and affects the process of osmosis. When the pressure inside the cell becomes large enough, no additional water will accumulate in the cell even though the cell still has a higher solute concentration than does water . So.
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ater Potential of a Potato Chip Aim: To find out the waterpotential of potato cells using different concentrations of sucrosesolutions . Scientific knowledge WaterPotential can be described in terms of osmosis. Osmosis is best regarded as a special type of diffusion involving water molecules only. Diffusion is the movement of particles from a region of their high concentration to a region of their low concentration In 1827 a Scottish botanist Robert brown reported that when pollen grains are mounted in water and viewed at high magnification through a microscope they are seen to make continuous movement this was caused by the constant motion of minute particles within pollen grains. This movement of suspended particles is now called the Brownian motion. In the Brownian motion the small particles which we can see are bombarded on all sides by randomly moving molecules which are far too small for us to see. Einstein in 1879 suggested that Brownian motion provided evidence for the kinetic (energy of movement) theory of mater. According to the theory, all matter is composed of tiny invisible particles; the continuous movement of particles in liquids and gases causes the transport and mixing that we call diffusion. During diffusion molecules move down a.
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WaterPotential Teacher: What is the formula for water . Student: H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O Teacher: That's not what I taught you. Student: But you said the formula for water was. H to O. Prepared by Lower concentration of solute Waterpotential – the ability of water move out of the solution through osmosis. Solute molecule Equal concentration of solute Higher concentration of solute H2O Selectively permeable membrane Water molecule Solute molecule with cluster of water molecules Net flow of water ψcell Waterpotential of cell (ψcell) – the ability of H2O molecules to move out of cell by osmosis. nwk ψsol Waterpotential for solution (ψsol) – the ability of H2O molecules to move out of solution by osmosis. nwk ψs Solute potential (ψs) = osmotic potential – the ability of solution causing H2O molecules to enter by osmosis because presence of solute/osmotic substances. nwk Distilled water separated by a partiallypermeable membrane: Water molecules are moving from one side of the membrane to the other but there is no net osmosis. nwk If a substance is dissolved in water . the kinetic energy of the water molecules is lowered.
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