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Postcolonial feminism

Postcolonial feminism is a form of feminist philosophy which criticizes Western forms of feminism. notably radical feminism and liberal feminism and their universalization of female experience. Postcolonial feminists argue that cultures impacted by colonialism are often vastly different and should be treated as such. Colonial oppression may result in glorification of pre-colonial culture, which, in cultures with traditions of stratification of power along lines of gender, could mean the acceptance of, or refusal to deal with, inherent issues of gender inequality. [Greenwald, A: " [http://www.scholars.nus.edu.sg/post/achebe/greenwald3.html Postcolonial Feminism in Anthills of the Savannah ] ", 2002 ]

Postcolonial feminists do not present a united front on feminist issues, but can be described as feminists who have reacted against both universalizing tendencies in Western feminist thought and a lack of attention to gender issues in mainstream postcolonial thought. [Mills, S (1998): "Postcolonial Feminist Theory" page 98 in S. Jackson and J. Jones eds. "Contemporary Feminist Theories" (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) pp.98-112 ]

Many postcolonial feminists argue that oppressions relating to the colonial experience, particularly racial, class, and ethnic oppressions, have marginalized women in postcolonial societies. They challenge the assumption that gender oppression is the primary force of patriarchy. Moreover, postcolonial feminists object to the perceived portrayal of women of non-Western societies as passive and voiceless victims, as opposed to the portrayal of Western women as modern, educated and empowered. [Mills, S (1998): "Postcolonial Feminist Theory" page 106 in S. Jackson and J. Jones eds. "Contemporary Feminist Theories" (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press) pp.98-112 ] While challenging gender oppression within their own culture, postcolonial feminists also fight charges of being "Western", as some within their cultures would contend.

The field of postcolonial feminism arose from the gendered history of colonialism. Colonial powers often imposed Westernized norms on colonized regions. In the 1940s and 1950s, after the formation of the United Nations. former colonies were monitored for what was deemed "social progress" by Western standards. The advancement of women, among other variables, has been monitored by arguably Western organizations such as the United Nations. As a result, traditional practices and roles taken up by women -- sometimes seen as distateful by Western standards -- could be considered a form of rebellion against colonial oppression. Postcolonial feminists today struggle to fight gender oppression within their own cultural models of society rather than through those of the West. Mohanty, Chandra Talpade, 'Under Western Eyes' in "Feminist Review", No. 30 (Autumn, 1988), pp. 61-88 ]

An underlying theoretical premise of postcolonial feminism is that the concepts of freedom, equality, and rights stem from the Enlightenment and privilege Western and European norms, rather than representing a universal value s system. Yegenoglu, Meyda "Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist Reading of Orientalism" (Cambridge University Press, 1998) ISBN 9780521626583 ]

Much postcolonial feminist writing overlaps with transnational feminism and third-world feminism. Postcolonial feminism is also closely related to postcolonialism. Finally, there is a long-standing and important alliance between postcolonial feminists and black feminists. Both have struggled for recognition, not only by men in their own culture, but also by Western feminists. [Weedon, C: " [http://www.genderforum.uni-koeln.de/genderealisations/weedon.html Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective ] ", 2002 ]

Postcolonial feminist authors

Postcolonial feminist authors include:
* Gayatri Spivak. with her important "Can the Subaltern Speak?" (1988)
* Trinh T. Minh-ha. with her essay "Infinite Layers/Third World?" (1989), and her book "Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism" (1989)
* Chandra Talpade Mohanty. with her influential essay "Under Western Eyes" (1991)
* Uma Narayan. with her book Dislocating Cultures (1997) and her essay "Contesting Cultures" (1997)
* Kwok Pui-lan. with her book Postcolonial Imagination and Feminist Theology (2005)
* Sara Suleri. "Boys Will Be Boys: A Daughter's Elegy" (2003)
* Lata Mani
* Kumkum Sangari
* Anne McClintock
* Gloria Anzaldúa. "Borderlands/La frontera: The new mestiza" (1987) And the recopilations: "This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color"(1981) "Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color"(1990)

* Black feminism
* History of feminism
* Postcolonialism
* Third-world feminism
* Transnational feminism

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Postcolonial feminism, often referred to as Third World feminism. is a form of feminist philosophy which centers around the idea that racism. colonialism. and the long lasting effects (economic, political, and cultural) of colonialism in the postcolonial setting, are inextricably bound up with the unique gendered realities of non-white,and non-Western women. [ 1 ] Postcolonial feminists criticize Western feminists because they have a history of universalizing women's issues, and their discourses are often misunderstood to represent women globally.

Thus, one of the central ideas in postcolonial feminism is that by using the term 'woman' as a universal group, they are then only defined by their gender and not by social classes and ethnic identities. [ 2 ] Also, it is believed by postcolonial feminists that mainstream Western feminists ignored the voices of non-white, non-western women for many years, thus creating resentment from feminists in developing nations. [ 3 ]

Postcolonialism can provide an outlet for citizens to discuss various experiences endured during colonialism. These can include: "migration, slavery, suppression, resistance, representation, difference, race, gender, place and responses to the influential discourses of imperial Europe." [ 4 ] Postcolonial feminists see the parallels between recently decolonized nations and the state of women within patriarchy - both take the "perspective of a socially marginalized subgroup in their relationship to the dominant culture." [ 4 ]

Postcolonial feminists have had strong ties with black feminists because colonialism usually contains themes of racism. Both groups have struggled for recognition, not only by men in their own culture, but also by Western feminists. [ 1 ]

Postcolonial feminism emerged from the gendered history of colonialism: colonial powers often imposed Western norms on colonized regions. In the 1940s and 1950s, after the formation of the United Nations. former colonies were monitored by the West for what was considered "social progress". The status of women in the developing world has been monitored by organizations such as the United Nations and as a result traditional practices and roles taken up by women—sometimes seen as distasteful by Western standards—could be considered a form of rebellion against colonial oppression. [ 5 ]

Third-world feminism has been described as a group of feminist theories developed by feminists who acquired their views and took part in feminist politics in so-called third-world countries. [ 6 ]

Relationship to Western feminisms

Postcolonial feminism is critical of Western forms of feminism, notably radical feminism and liberal feminism and their universalization of women's experiences. Postcolonial feminists argue that cultures impacted by colonialism are often vastly different and should be treated as such. Colonial oppression may result in the glorification of pre-colonial culture, which, in cultures with traditions of power stratification along gender lines, could mean the acceptance of, or refusal to deal with, inherent issues of gender inequality. [ 7 ] Postcolonial feminists can be described as feminists who have reacted against both universalizing tendencies in Western feminist thought and a lack of attention to gender issues in mainstream postcolonial thought. [ 8 ]

Postcolonial feminist authors

Postcolonial feminist authors include:

  • Arundhati Roy. with her novel The God of Small Things (1997)
  • Gayatri Spivak. with her important "Can the Subaltern Speak?" (1988)
  • Giannina Braschi. with her mixed-genre critique of Puerto Rico's colonial status "United States of Banana" (2011)
  • Trinh T. Minh-ha. with her essay "Infinite Layers/Third World?" (1989), and her book "Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism" (1989)
  • Chandra Talpade Mohanty. with her influential essay "Under Western Eyes" (1988)
  • Uma Narayan. with her book Dislocating Cultures (1997) and her essay "Contesting Cultures" (1997)
  • Kwok Pui-lan, with her book Postcolonial Imagination and Feminist Theology (2005)
  • Sara Suleri. Boys Will Be Boys: A Daughter's Elegy (2003)
  • Lata Mani, Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India (1998)
  • Kumkum Sangari, Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History (1989)
  • Anne McClintock. Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (1995)
  • Gloria E. Anzaldúa. Borderlands/La frontera: The New Mestiza (1987) and the anthologies This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (1981) and Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color (1990)
  • Audre Lorde. Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1983), Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (1984)
  • June Jordan
  • Theresa Hak Kyung Cha
  • Aurora Levins Morales. Getting Home Alive (with Rosario Morales, 1986), Medicine Stories: History, Culture, and the Politics of Integrity (1998), and Remedios: Stories of Earth and Iron from the History of Puertorriqueñas (1998).
Postcolonial feminist quotes

Many feminists have contributed to postcolonial feminism by using written words to express their ideas and opinions - which have been of great importance to the postcolonial feminist movement.

  • "The juncture I am proposing, therefore, is extreme. It is a location wherein the praxis of U.S. third-world feminism links with the aims of white feminism, studies of race, ethnicity, and marginality, and with post-modern theories of culture as they crosscut and join together in new relationships through a shared comprehension of an emerging theory and method of oppositional consciousness." - Chela Sandoval [ 9 ]
  • "Given the significant dangers that varieties of cultural essentialism pose to feminist agendas, I believe that the development of a feminist perspective that is committed to antiessentialism both about 'women' and about 'cultures' is an urgent and important task for a postcolonial feminist perspective. Such a perspective must distinguish and extricate feminist projects of attending to differences among women from problematically essentialist colonial and postcolonial understandings of 'cultural difference' between Western culture and its 'Others.' - Uma Narayan [ 2 ]
  • "While a politics of inclusion is driven by an ambition for universal representation (of all women's interests), a politics of partiality does away with that ambition and accepts the principle that feminism can never ever be an encompassing political home for all women, not just because different groups of women have different and sometimes conflicting interests, but, more radically, because for many groups of 'other' women other interests, other identifications are sometimes more important and politically pressing than, or even incompatible with, those related to their being women." - Ien Ang [ 10 ]
References
  1. ^ ab Weedon, C: "Key Issues in Postcolonial Feminism: A Western Perspective," 2002
  2. ^ ab Narayan, Uma. "Essence of Culture and a Sense of History: A Feminist Critique of Cultural Essentialism." Ed. Narayan and Harding. Decentering the Center. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000. 80-100
  3. ^ McEwan, C: "Postcolonialism, feminism and development: intersections and dilemmas," 2001
  4. ^ ab Kramarae and Spender: Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women, Vol. 3, 2000
  5. ^ Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. "Under Western Eyes". Feminist Review (Autumn, 1988): 27.  
  6. ^ Narayan, Uma (1997). Dislocating cultures: identities, traditions, and Third-World feminism. New York: Routledge. ISBN  0-415-91418-3.  
  7. ^ Greenwald, A: "Postcolonial Feminism in Anthills of the Savannah ", 2002.
  8. ^ Mills, S (1998): "Postcolonial Feminist Theory", page 98 in S. Jackson and J. Jones, eds. Contemporary Feminist Theories (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 98–112.
  9. ^ Sandoval, Chela. "US Third World Feminism: the Theory and Method of Oppositional Consciousness in the Postmodern World." Genders 10 (1991): 1-24.
  10. ^ Ang, Ien. "I'm a Feminist but. "Other" Women and Postnational Feminism." Ed. Caine and Pringle. Transitions: New Australian Feminisms. London: Allen & Unwin, 1995. 57-73

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Postcolonial TheoryFeminism Paper by

Postcolonial Theory & Feminism

Postcolonial Theory Feminism

Postcolonial theory is actually a growing as well as a controversial field. Some of the critics understand postcolonial theory as hypothetically and incoherent not worth mentioning at its best and political harmful at its worst. Post colonial theory is however superficial as an uncritical condemnation of the Western nations cultures as well as values. For some reasons. these wrong interpretations materialize from a lack of intellectual commitment with the s in that same field. These critics are actually motivated

by a political desire which is out to sustain and legitimize the power of Western values. nations together with the cultures. This will respond to these types of distortions. The will identify how philosophical reflections might assist people to understand the nature of connections between dissimilar cultures. After the introduction together with the main problems in the field of postcolonial theory. the will talk so much about the early theorists of anti-colonialism However. postcolonial theory must be conceptualized as an extension of the aforementioned anti colonial struggles. In this situation one is able to understand fully the connections between colonialism and the western philosophy. At times when the West tends to control as well as shaping different cultures and the way of their thinking. the study of the way different cultures interacted during the past seems tremendously necessary

As a result. feminist theory is the expansion of feminism into philosophical or theoretical position. It tends to encompass the work done.

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Postcolonial Feminism In South Africa In Relation To The Case Of Bhe V Magistrate Khayelitsha - Book Report

Postcolonial Feminism In South Africa In Relation To The Case Of Bhe V Magistrate Khayelitsha

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Autor: anton • March 30, 2011 • 2,155 Words (9 Pages) • 709 Views

This essay will look at the case of Bhe v Magistrate Khayelitsha. and analyse the decision in light of postcolonial feminism. It will examine whether the concept of equality can be reconciled with customary practices in South Africa, or whether these practices are outdated and have no place in a modern democratic society like South Africa, where equality and human dignity are fundamental concepts our society is built on. The assumption that the law in some way reflects unequal power relations between men and women is central to most feminist jurisprudence. All feminist thinking has a political aspect that engages ideas as to how things "ought to be" in an ideal world. It is therefore necessary to describe what exactly postcolonial feminism advocates, and how this can be applied to the Bhe case.

Postcolonial feminism is based on postmodern feminism, in the sense that it is also concerned with the construction of gender identity. Postmodern thought rejects the idea of a foundational truth, it states that any claim to truth or meaning is nether certain nor pre-existing. Identity is seen as a complex combination of different elements such as class, race, gender and sexuality .Thus postmodern feminism argues that the idea of woman is neither stable, nor fixed; they reject any conception of woman as a universal or homogenous category. The idea of "woman" cannot be described solely in relation to men or in terms of common experience, gender difference is not seen as a fundamental division in society but is dependent upon context and complex, ever-changing social practices. Postmodern feminists reject the very notion of difference of difference as inherently oppressive, due to the multi-faceted construction of the self. The ever-shifting nature of identity means that gender is merely one component of oppression, as is class, religion, culture, race, and various other social factors.

The difference between postcolonial and postmodern feminism centres around the postmodern idea of the rejection of categories such as race, gender, and class as forms of domination and subordination. Postcolonial writing instead focuses on understanding the above mentioned categories as specific process of supremacy and domination. Thus an understanding of the law will investigate how the law constructs and reinforces particular ideas of gender identity and how these ideas are linked to wider systems of political, economic and social domination in controlling and regulating women. Therefore in order to analyse the Bhe case one must examine if and how the customary law of succession subdues and controls women that live under such a seemingly patriarchal system.

The application in Bhe was made on behalf of the two minor daughters of Ms Nontupheko Bhe and her deceased partner, who were married under customary law. It was contended that the customary law rule of male primogeniture unfairly discriminated against the two children by preventing them from inheriting from the estate of their deceased father. In traditional families the eldest son or failing him, the eldest male descendent of the eldest son inherits from the family head. If the family head dies without producing a son, other male family members of the deceased will inherit. Wives and daughters of the deceased generally do not inherit. In this situation the heir to the deceased's property had indicated that he wished to sell the deceased's property in order to pay for funeral expenses.

The decision in Bhe abolished the customary law of succession codified in the Black Administration Act and its regulations, and replaced it with the common law of succession. What the court effectively did was directly declare the male primogeniture rule unconstitutional by declaring certain sections of the Black Administration Act and its regulations unconstitutional. It held that the applicable provisions of the Black Administration Act were discriminatory and contrary to S9(3) of the Constitution. and not "reasonable and justifiable in a democratic society based on dignity, quality and freedom." The court found that there was adequate evidence before it to demonstrate that African women and descendents who were not first born males were "placed in an extremely vulnerable situation " and their rights to dignity and equality were violated by the continued application of the rule of male primogeniture.

However, there has been dissonance around this decision. The Bill of Rights guarantees everyone the right to participate in the cultural life of their choice, provided that these rights are not exercised in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Constitution. It therefore seems as if the Constitution enables competing rights such as equality and dignity to prevail over cultural rights. However, the whole purpose of the new constitutional dispensation is to move South African society from the old social and legal orders in which the social institutions and legal systems of some communities were simply disregarded by the common law. Thus the customary law of succession cannot just simply be disregarded without careful examination.

One must firstly enquire whether the entire concept of primogeniture is not entirely against the concept of feminism. Feminism argues that the law constructs and reinforces particular ideas of gender identity. By only allowing male heirs to inherit property, the law as it stood was creating a conception of poor, black women married under customary law as weak and relatively unimportant, seemingly unable to handle ownership of property and make important decisions affecting the household. Therefore on such an initial construction it seems that the rule of primogeniture was creating unequal power relations and constructing women as inferior and unimportant in relation to men.

However, Oyewumi argues that feminism, even such purported by African scholars, is Western in origin and often not appropriate when studying African discourse. She argues that theorists impose Western categories on non-Western cultures and then "project such categories as normal". She claims that the different ways the social world is constructed in other cultures through the eyes of "Westernised" academics nullify the alternatives purported by non-Western cultures and in fact undermine the claim that gender is a social construction. African intellectuals have accepted and identified with Western thinking to the point that they have merely created African versions of European things. Thus feminism, despite its fundamental local stance, in fact exhibits the same ethnocentric and imperialistic characteristics of the Western discourses it sought to subvert. It may therefore have limitations on its applicability outside of the culture that produced

Postcolonial Feminism in South Africa in Relation to the Case of Bhe V Magistrate Khayelitsha Essay - 2152 Words

Postcolonial Feminism in South Africa in Relation to the Case of Bhe V Magistrate Khayelitsha

This essay will look at the case of Bhe v Magistrate Khayelitsha. and analyse the decision in light of postcolonial feminism. It will examine whether the concept of equality can be reconciled with customary practices in South Africa, or whether these practices are outdated and have no place in a modern democratic society like South Africa, where equality and human dignity are fundamental concepts our society is built on. The assumption that the law in some way reflects unequal power relations between men and women is central to most feminist jurisprudence. All feminist thinking has a political aspect that engages ideas as to how things "ought to be" in an ideal world. It is therefore necessary to describe what exactly postcolonial feminism advocates, and how this can be applied to the Bhe case.

Postcolonial feminism is based on postmodern feminism, in the sense that it is also concerned with the construction of gender identity. Postmodern thought rejects the idea of a foundational truth, it states that any claim to truth or meaning is nether certain nor pre-existing. Identity is seen as a complex combination of different elements such as class, race, gender and sexuality .Thus postmodern feminism argues that the idea of woman is neither stable, nor fixed; they reject any conception of woman as a universal or homogenous category. The idea of "woman" cannot be described solely in relation to men or in terms of common experience, gender difference is not seen as a fundamental division in society but is dependent upon context and complex, ever-changing social practices. Postmodern feminists reject the very notion of difference of difference as inherently oppressive, due to the multi-faceted construction of the self. The ever-shifting nature of identity means that gender is merely one component of oppression, as is class, religion, culture, race, and various other social factors.

The difference between postcolonial and postmodern feminism centres around the postmodern idea of the rejection of categories such as race, gender, and class as forms of domination and subordination. Postcolonial writing instead focuses on understanding the above mentioned categories as specific process of supremacy and domination. Thus an understanding of the law will investigate how the law constructs and reinforces particular ideas of gender identity and how these ideas are linked to wider systems of political, economic and social domination in controlling and regulating women. Therefore in order to analyse the Bhe case one must examine if and how the customary law of succession subdues and controls women that live under such a seemingly patriarchal system.

The application in Bhe was made on behalf of the two minor daughters of Ms Nontupheko Bhe and her deceased partner, who were married under customary law. It was contended that the customary law rule of male primogeniture unfairly discriminated against the two children by preventing them from inheriting from the estate of their deceased father. In traditional families the eldest son or failing him, the eldest male descendent of the eldest son inherits from the family head. If the family head dies without producing a son, other male family members of the deceased will inherit. Wives and daughters of the deceased generally do not inherit. In this situation the heir to the deceased's property had indicated that he wished to sell the deceased's property in order to pay for funeral expenses.

The decision in Bhe abolished the customary law of succession codified in the Black Administration Act and its regulations, and replaced it with the common law of succession. What the court effectively did was directly declare the male primogeniture rule unconstitutional by declaring certain sections of the Black Administration Act and its regulations unconstitutional. It held that the applicable provisions of the Black Administration Act were discriminatory and contrary to S9(3) of.

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Southen Africa’s Best South Africans at the moment are worried stiff about the fluctuating health of a heroic icon former President Nelson Mandela but it turns out not only is this troubling them but the growth of their economy. Once a shining star in terms of accelerating growth and being the most developed, South African economy is feeling heat in various of its key economic variables. A close analysis into what its industries are giving out ,South African industries recorded an estimated total turnover of R1.62trn in the first quarter of 2013‚ which was a 2.7 percent decrease compared with the R1.66trn in the fourth quarter of 2012.Close analysis of this decrease shows that turnover decreased in five of the eight industries. The largest decrease in turnover was recorded for construction (-7.3%)‚ followed by trade (-4.8%)‚ electricity‚ gas and water supply (-2.9%)‚ manufacturing (-2.8%) and transport‚ storage and communication (-1.6%).This shows a general decrease in its major contributors of its economy. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annual growth rate year on year slowed to 1.9 for the first quarter of 2013 from 2.5 the last quarter of 2012.SouthAfrica is an export-based country as it is rich in natural resources .It is a leading producer of platinum, gold, chromium and iron. However ,the volume of South African gold exports have fallen in each of the past six quarters. The.

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| | Historical places in South Africa34 Found | Next 30 >> | Pages: 1 | 2 | South Africa's rich and dramatic history dates from the earliest inhabitants through colonisation to the discovery of diamonds & gold; from the formation and evolution of black resistance, through 3 decades of crisis to the eventual death of apartheid. Explore the numerous historical places and share in our rich heritage. Historical places in | ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormBottom of Form | Historical places in SouthAfrica Map | | Alberton Heritage Society | Gauteng, Alberton | Raise awareness that anything 60+ years is protected under the National Heritage Act. We Identify, Preserve and Assist. | | | Castle of Good Hope | Western Cape, Cape Town | Built between 1666 and 1679 by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a maritime replenishment station, the Castle of Good Hope is the oldest surviving colonial building in SouthAfrica . | | | Church Square | Gauteng, Pretoria | The sculptor Anton van Wouw's statue of Paul Kruger occupies the centre stage on Church Square. While the bronze figures of Kruger and the sentries were cast in Italy at the turn of the century | | | Coedmore Castle | Kwazulu Natal, Durban | Coedmore Castle is a historic family home built in 1875 and is situated in the middle of the Kenneth Stainbank Nature.

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