Essay for you

The Essays Of Francis Bacon 1944 Mercury

Rating: 4.4/5.0 (38 Votes)

Category: Essay

Description

Essays of Francis Bacon - Of Unity (The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral, of Francis Ld

Essays of Francis Bacon
The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral, of Francis Ld. Verulam Viscount St. Albans


Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

RELIGION being the chief band of human society, it is a happy thing, when itself is well contained within the true band of unity. The quarrels, and divisions about religion, were evils unknown to the heathen. The reason was, because the religion of the heathen, consisted rather in rites and ceremonies, than in any constant belief. For you may imagine, what kind of faith theirs was, when the chief doctors, and fathers of their church, were the poets. But the true God hath this attribute, that he is a jealous God; and therefore, his worship and religion, will endure no mixture, nor partner.We shall therefore speak a few words, concerning the unity of the church; what are the fruits thereof ; what the bounds; and what the means.

The fruits of unity (next unto the well pleasing of God, which is all in all) are two: the one, towards those that are without the church, the other, towards those that are within. For the former; it is certain, that heresies, and schisms, are of all others the greatest scandals; yea, more than corruption of manners. For as in the natural body, a wound, or solution of continuity, is worse than a corrupt humor; so in the spiritual. So that nothing, doth so much keep men out of the church, and drive men out of the church, as breach of unity. And therefore, whensoever it cometh to that pass, that one saith, Ecce in deserto, another saith, Ecce in penetralibus; that is, when some men seek Christ, in the conventicles of heretics, and others, in an outward face of a church, that voice had need continually to sound in men’s ears, Nolite exire, - Go not out. The doctor of the Gentiles (the propriety of whose vocation, drew him to have a special care of those without) saith, if an heathen come in, and hear you speak with several tongues, will he not say that you are mad? And certainly it is little better, when atheists, and profane persons, do hear of so many discordant, and contrary opinions in religion; it doth avert them from the church, and maketh them, to sit down in the chair of the scorners. It is but a light thing, to be vouched in so serious a matter, but yet it expresseth well the deformity. There is a master of scoffing, that in his catalogue of books of a feigned library, sets down this title of a book, The Morris-Dance of Heretics. For indeed, every sect of them, hath a diverse posture, or cringe by themselves, which cannot but move derision in worldlings, and depraved politics, who are apt to contemn holy things.

As for the fruit towards those that are within; it is peace; which containeth infinite blessings. It establisheth faith; it kindleth charity; the outward peace of the church, distilleth into peace of conscience; and it turneth the labors of writing, and reading of controversies, into treaties of mortification and devotion.

Concerning the bounds of unity; the true placing of them, importeth exceedingly. There appear to be two extremes. For to certain zealants, all speech of pacification is odious. Is it peace, Jehu. What hast thou to do with peace? turn thee behind me. Peace is not the matter, but following, and party. Contrariwise, certain Laodiceans, and lukewarm persons, think they may accommodate points of religion, by middle way, and taking part of both, and witty reconcilements; as if they would make an arbitrament between God and man. Both these extremes are to be avoided; which will be done, if the league of Christians, penned by our Savior himself, were in two cross clauses thereof, soundly and plainly expounded: He that is not with us, is against us; and again, He that is not against us, is with us; that is, if the points fundamental and of substance in religion, were truly discerned and distinguished, from points not merely of faith, but of opinion, order, or good intention. This is a thing may seem to many a matter trivial, and done already. But if it were done less partially, it would be embraced more generally.

Of this I may give only this advice, according to my small model. Men ought to take heed, of rending God’s church, by two kinds of controversies. The one is, when the matter of the point controverted, is too small and light, not worth the heat and strife about it, kindled only by contradiction. For, as it is noted, by one of the fathers, Christ’s coat indeed had no seam, but the church’s vesture was of divers colors; whereupon he saith, In veste varietas sit, scissura non sit; they be two things, unity and uniformity. The other is, when the matter of the point controverted, is great, but it is driven to an over-great subtilty, and obscurity; so that it becometh a thing rather ingenious, than substantial. A man that is of judgment and understanding, shall sometimes hear ignorant men differ, and know well within himself, that those which so differ, mean one thing, and yet they themselves would never agree. And if it come so to pass, in that distance of judgment, which is between man and man, shall we not think that God above, that knows the heart, doth not discern that frail men, in some of their contradictions, intend the same thing; and accepteth of both? The nature of such controversies is excellently expressed, by St. Paul, in the warning and precept, that he giveth concerning the same, Devita profanas vocum novitates, et oppositiones falsi nominis scientiae. Men create oppositions, which are not; and put them into new terms, so fixed, as whereas the meaning ought to govern the term, the term in effect governeth the meaning.There be also two false peaces, or unities: the one, when the peace is grounded, but upon an implicit ignorance; for all colors will agree in the dark: the other, when it is pieced up, upon a direct admission of contraries, in fundamental points. For truth and falsehood, in such things, are like the iron and clay, in the toes of Nebuchadnezzar’s image; they may cleave, but they will not incorporate.

Concerning the means of procuring unity; men must beware, that in the procuring, or reuniting, of religious unity, they do not dissolve and deface the laws of charity, and of human society. There be two swords amongst Christians, the spiritual and temporal; and both have their due office and place, in the maintenance of religion. But we may not take up the third sword, which is Mahomet’s sword, or like unto it; that is, to propagate religion by wars, or by sanguinary persecutions to force consciences; except it be in cases of overt scandal, blasphemy, or intermixture of practice against the state; much less to nourish seditions; to authorize conspiracies and rebellions; to put the sword into the people’s hands; and the like; tending to the subversion of all government, which is the ordinance of God. For this is but to dash the first table against the second; and so to consider men as Christians, as we forget that they are men. Lucretius the poet, when he beheld the act of Agamemnon, that could endure the sacrificing of his own daughter, exclaimed: Tantum Religio potuit suadere malorum.

What would he have said, if he had known of the massacre in France, or the powder treason of England? He would have been seven times more Epicure, and atheist, than he was. For as the temporal sword is to be drawn with great circumspection in cases of religion; so it is a thing monstrous to put it into the hands of the common people. Let that be left unto the Anabaptists, and other furies. It was great blasphemy, when the devil said, I will ascend, and be like the highest; but it is greater blasphemy, to personate God, and bring him in saying, I will descend, and be like the prince of darkness; and what is it better, to make the cause of religion to descend, to the cruel and execrable actions of murthering princes, butchery of people, and subversion of states and governments? Surely this is to bring down the Holy Ghost, instead of the likeness of a dove, in the shape of a vulture or raven; and set, out of the bark of a Christian church, a flag of a bark of pirates, and assassins. Therefore it is most necessary, that the church, by doctrine and decree, princes by their sword, and all learnings, both Christian and moral, as by their Mercury rod, do damn and send to hell for ever, those facts and opinions tending to the support of the same; as hath been already in good part done. Surely in counsels concerning religion, that counsel of the apostle would be prefixed, Ira hominis non implet justitiam Dei. And it was a notable observation of a wise father, and no less ingenuously confessed; that those which held and persuaded pressure of consciences, were commonly interested therein. themselves, for their own ends.

This complete text of Essays of Francis Bacon is in the public domain.
Amazon books: The Essays. Francis Bacon.
This page has been created by Philipp Lenssen.
Page last updated on November 2003. Complete book.
Authorama - Classic Literature, free of copyright. About.

Video

Other articles

The Views and Opinions of Francis Bacon Essay examples - American Histo

The Views and Opinions of Francis Bacon Essay examples

Francis Bacon wrote more than 30 works of philosophy and many other tracts on law and science. He is regarded by many as the father of British empiricism. In his Novum Organum (1620), he presents a "new method" for acquiring knowledge that abandons the traditional deference toward the received wisdoms of Aristotle and other classical sources and advocates inductive, theory-free observations by the senses. The main features of Baconian scientific inquiry (chastity, holiness and legality), Bacon's criteria for assessing the merit of philosophical ideas (usefulness and charitgy), the main themes of Bacon's Instauratio Magna; and his identification of obstacles to the acquisition of knowledge (anti-Aristotlean).

I. Francis Bacon sought to acquire useful knowledge. He took a distaste for Aristotle and Scholasticism while a student at Trinity College.

II. Bacon rebelled against the regnant Western philosophical tradition.

A. He attacked it for confusing religious and natural knowledge and for emphasing concern for words rather than concern for things. Westerners are too concerned with rhetoric.

B. He sought to reorient rational inquiry toward existing things; ie. The natural world. This imquiry must be: (divorce from classics and new marriage)
  • Chaste--ie, Without ornamentation or self-indulgence
  • Holy--ie. Undertaken with Christian humility and reverence, and directed toward charitable use (eleviate human suffering)
  • Legal--ie. It must follow rules and the correct method for acquiring knowledge.


  • C. Bacon intend his New Organon (as opposed to the Organon that was always taught in western universities) to move European thought away from the worn and torture.


    . middle of paper.


    . ibe" are the general tendencies inherent in human nature (uncritical reliance on sense perception, overgeneralizing, perceiving order where none exists)
  • "Idols of the Cave" are distortions arising from our particular perspectiveds of individual people.
  • "Idols of the Marketplace" are distortions arising from faulty communication, and especially from ambiguous words.
  • "Idols of the Theater" are errors introduced by abstract theories (authority such as especially Aristotelianism and of systems that mix theological and scientific notions.


  • The Utopian New Atlantis (a new relationship between man and nature) in which human beings govern their relationship with natue and to society on behalf of real interest--knowledge is the instrument by patient observation. This gained disciples over time in the 17th century.

    Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

    Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

    Essay The Perspective of Art by Francis Bacon - 1. Pick any painting and analyze it from the points of view of the (a) formalist, (b) the expressionist, (c) and the philosopher of “aesthetic experience”. Which perspective, if any, do you find most convincing. I chose a piece by Francis Bacon, an Irish artist born in 1909, called the Study after Velázquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X. (a) From the point of view of a formalist, this piece would be examined in different perspectives such as the dark tones, shapes, and lines that the piece has, to the context and reasons of why Bacon decided to paint it as a re-modernization of the classical painting of Velasquez, exploring all the textures and dimensions of the painting to determine its art. [tags: Francis Bacon, art]

    940 words
    (2.7 pages)

    Analysis of Francis Bacon's The Four Idols Essay - Analysis of Francis Bacon's The Four Idols In "The Four Idols," Francis Bacon discusses the concept of what fundamentally stands in the way of a human using the correct way of arriving upon a conclusion. Bacon believes there are four falsehoods that delay people from uncovering what they need to: the idols of the tribe, cave, marketplace and theater. At first I thought that these idols did not apply to humans at all, but now, after careful consideration, I understand how each idol relates to humankind. [tags: Four Idols Essays Francis Bacon Human Nature]
    . 2 Works Cited

    1019 words
    (2.9 pages)

    Essay about Francis Bacon Was Shakespeare - The point of this research paper is to prove that Francis Bacon was Shakespeare. However, the fact of who really wrote the writings of Shakespeare is still unknown today. Many researchers have come up with a list of candidates that have the traits or characteristics of Shakespeare. The list includes Queen Elizabeth I, Edward de Vere, Francis Bacon, Christopher Marlow, and William Stanley. There is even a possibility of William Shakespeare being the actual writer of his works. At the top of that list is Francis Bacon, who had an almost direct match the thinking and personality of Shakespeare when reviewing his literature. [tags: classic, shakespeare]
    . 7 Works Cited

    1115 words
    (3.2 pages)

    Essay about The Great Francis Bacon - Francis Bacon was a British artist who was highly praised by the public and proclaimed the greatest artist of the 20th century. Though some have criticized him for his vague and harsh imagery, a lot more people have praised his work for its meaning, passion, and his abilities to materialize the good and bad on certain issues by using half-abstract figures and triptychs as his preference. In comparing and contrasting an early piece of his art work such as “Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion”, which was compelling and showed an originality that earned him wide creditability, to a late piece called “Study for the Head of George Dyer”, one can see the evolution of Mr. [tags: Biography ]
    . 3 Works Cited

    1035 words
    (3 pages)

    Essay on Francis Bacon - The Portraits - Francis Bacon - The Portraits Francis Bacon was born in Dublin, Ireland to English parents. When F. Bacon grow up and was more independent he then travelled to Berlin were he spent most of his time there. He then moved onto Paris, before returning to London and starting out as an interior designer. Bacon never attended art school; he only began his work in watercolours about 1926 – 27. An exhibition of works by Pablo Picasso inspired him to make his first drawings and paintings. The influence of the biomorphic figures in Picasso’s work is apparent in Bacons first major painting of his mature period ‘Three Studies for Figures’ at the base of a Crucifixion 1944. [tags: Visual Arts Paintings Art]

    640 words
    (1.8 pages)

    Francis Bacon Essay - He went to Trinity College when he was twelve years old. He wrote more than thirty philosophical works. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1584. Who is this intelligent person. Francis Bacon. Intelligent and daring, Francis Bacon wrote many letters to important people and philosophical works. Bacon was born in London, England on January 22, 1561. His father was Sir Nicholas Bacon who was a lord keeper of the great seal and his mother was Lady Anne Coke Bacon. She was daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, who was the tutor to the Tudor royal family. [tags: Biography]

    671 words
    (1.9 pages)

    Essay on Francis Bacon - Francis Bacon grew from poverty to expand his career as a British politician & entrepreneur and wrote prominent essays on humanism and innovative scientific philosophy. Most notably known as “the father of the English essay,” (McDougal 455) Bacon’s influential works were vastly impacted by the tenets of the Renaissance period. Even Thomas Jefferson, one of the founding fathers of our nation, credited being influenced by Bacon’s essays (McDougal 455). One of the core ideologies determined by his works is humanism which depicts how logic and knowledge derived from ancient Greek and Roman records can provide the best guides for learning and living. [tags: Biography, Politician, Entrepreneur]
    . 7 Works Cited

    1281 words
    (3.7 pages)

    Francis Bacon Essay examples - Francis Bacon’s self portrait is a haunting image that evokes thoughts of the human body’s fragility, especially the aged human body. This piece is a reflection of mortality and death expressed with melancholy colors and sparse imagery. The viewer is forced to reflect on the impact of time on the body and how time is the real Grim Reaper bringing us closer to death. The pose of Bacon’s body in a bleak environment brings to mind an empty waiting room and how life is like a vast waiting room with its inhabitants watching as all their friends and family are called into whatever lies beyond. [tags: Art Techniques, Analysis. Self Portrait]
    . 1 Works Cited

    1050 words
    (3 pages)

    Essay about The Need for Francis Bacon's Philosophy - The Need for Bacon's Philosophy Works in This Complicated World We live in interesting times. We, meaning those of us living in the United States of America near the close of the twentieth century, are a part of the most technologically advanced civilization the world has ever know as well as the biggest economy in the world to date. Because of our country's wealth and power, it attracts immigrants from many other nations. Furthermore, because of advances in communications technology, meaning especially television and the Internet, we are exposed to different lifestyles and experiences from all over the world. [tags: Science Scientific Method]

    1039 words
    (3 pages)

    Essay on Francis Bacon - Francis Bacon Francis Bacon was the founder of the modern scientific method. The focus on the new scientific method is on orderly experimentation. For Bacon, experiments that produce results are important. Bacon pointed out the need for clear and accurate thinking, showing that any mastery of the world in which man lives was dependent upon careful understanding. This understanding is based solely yyon the facts of this world and not as the ancients held it in ancient philosophy. This new modern science provides the foundation for modern political science. [tags: science]

    1496 words
    (4.3 pages)

    Бэкон, Фрэнсис

    Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St. Alban, Lord Chancellor of England under James I; Francis, Lord Verulam England 1561 - 1626 Teachers: Nicholas Stone, architect; Callimachus ; Aristotle; Imhotep, engineer / architect for Pharaoh Djoser; Students:influenced The Royal Society; William Rawley; Robert Boyle; John Wilkins; Julianus de Campis aka Cornelius Drebbel; Joseph Fort Newton; Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, his secretary for 5 years; John Stuart Mill; David Hume ; George Berkeley ; Nicholas Bishop-Culpeper; Friends: Lord Arundel; his brother Nathaniel married Sir Thomas Gresham's daughter Anne; Enemies: not personal, but his inductive, experimental approach was the antithesis of Rene Descartes' "I think, therefore I am" deductive approach from first principles.; Organizations: Priory of St. John of Jerusalem; Knight of the Helmet; Fraternity Rosi Crosse Society; Accepted Freemasons Author:"The New Atlantis" (inspired Rosicrucians) see it (http://www.alchemylab.com/bacon.htm ); Novum Organum Scientiarum ('New Method' or a New Instrument) (1620)inspired the Royal Society; Sylva Sylvarum, or a Naturall Historie in ten Centuries including Experiments touching Sulphur and Mercury (see it here http://www.levity.com/alchemy/baconsul.html ) and The Making of Gold (http://www.levity.com/alchemy/bacongld.html ); An Advancement in Learning, 1605; Sylva sylvarum aka The Forest of Materials, 1627; History of Henry the Seventh, which has a frontispiece showing Lord Bacon with Rosicrucian roses for shoe buckles; The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall, of Francis LO. Verulam, Viscount of St. Alban, 1625, reprinted 1906; The Fragment of an Essay Of Fame;

    Comments:experiential scientist was the model for the Royal Society, no obvious relationship with Roger Bacon 1214 – 1294. respects Ancient Jews but anti-Semitic towards them in the 1600s. Alchemy; Rosicrucian; Qabalist; may have influenced Freemasonry; no obvious relation to Francis Bacon the artist, 1909 – 1992; Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Bacon ; http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/b#a296  ; listen to him here - http://librivox.org/the-new-atlantis-by-francis-bacon/  ;

    The Essays of Francis Bacon

    The Essays of Francis Bacon/V Of Adversity

    2000289 The Essays of Francis Bacon — V. Of Adversity Francis Bacon 1908

    It was a high speech of Seneca (after the manner of the Stoics), that the good things which belong to prosperity are to be wished; but the good things that belong to adversity are to be admired. Bona rerum secundarum optabilia; adversarum mirabilia. [2] Certainly if miracles be the command over nature, they appear most in adversity. It is yet a higher speech of his than the other (much too high for a heathen), It is true greatness to have in one the frailty of a man, and the security of a God. Vere magnum habere fragilitatem hominis, securitatem Dei. [3] This would have done better in poesy, [4] where transcendences [5] are more allowed. And the poets indeed have been busy with it; for it is in effect the thing which is figured in that strange fiction of the ancient poets, which seemeth not to be without mystery; [6] nay, and to have some approach to the state of a Christian; that Hercules, when he went to unbind Prometheus, [7] (by whom human nature is represented), sailed the length of the great ocean in an earthen pot or pitcher; lively describing Christian resolution, that saileth in the frail bark of the flesh thorough the waves of the world. But to speak in a mean. [8] The virtue of Prosperity is temperance; the virtue of Adversity is fortitude; which in morals is the more heroical virtue. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament; Adversity is the blessing of the New; which carrieth the greater benediction, and the clearer revelation of God's favour. Yet even in the Old Testament, if you listen to David's harp, you shall hear as many hearse-like airs as carols; and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath laboured more in describing the afflictions of Job than the felicities [9] of Salomon. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes; and Adversity is not without comforts and hopes. We see in needle-works and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon a sad [10] and solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground: judge therefore of the pleasure of the heart by the pleasure of the eye. Certainly virtue is like precious odours, most fragrant when they are incensed [11] or crushed: for Prosperity doth best discover vice, but Adversity doth best discover virtue.

    1. ↑ This essay was first printed in the edition of 1625, after Bacon had experienced the height of prosperity as Lord Chancellor and the depth of adversity in his degradation and fall.
    2. Ilia bona optabilia, haec mirabilia sunt. L. Annaei Senecae ad Lucilium Epistularum Moralium Liber VII. Epistula IV. 29.
    3. Ecce res magna, habere inbecillitatem hominis, securitatem dei. L. Annaei Senecae ad Lucilium Epistularum Moralium Liber VI. Epistula I. 12.
    4. Poesy. Poetry .

    "Music and poesy use, to quicken you."
     Shakspere. The Taming of the Shrew, i. 1.

  • Transcendence. Elevation, loftiness (of thought) .
  • Mystery. Hidden meaning, as in the word 'myth,' which is a fable containing elements of truth.
  • ↑ Prometheus was the son of Iapetus, one of the Titans. He formed men of clay, and animated them with fire brought from heaven. For this Jupiter sent Mercury to bind him to the Caucasus, where a vulture preyed upon his liver until killed by Hercules. 'Prometheus' means 'the Foreknower,' as in Mrs. Browning's drama, Prometheus Bound,

    "Unto me the foreknower ."


    W. M. Rossetti, in his Memoir of Percy Bysshe Shelley, p. 97, places Shelley's drama, Prometheus Unbound. 1820, "at the summit of all latter poetry." "It is the ideal poem of perpetual and triumphant progression the Atlantis of Man Emancipated." Prometheus; or the State of Man, in Of the Wisdom of the Ancients, is Bacon's version of the myth of Prometheus.
  • ↑ To speak in a mean. To speak with moderation.

     "the golden mean. and quiet flow,
    Of truths that soften hatred, temper strife."

    Wordsworth. Ecclesiastical Sonnets. Part III. Sacheverel. 13–14.
  • Felicities. Prosperous circumstances, successes.
  • Sad. Dark-colored. "This is a gentleman every inch of him, and a virtuoso, a clean virtuoso—a sad -coloured stand of claithes, and a wig like the curled back of a mug-ewe." Scott. The Monastery. Introductory Epistle.
  • Incensed. Enkindled, set on fire. "The same Mr. Bettenham [Reader of Gray's Inn] said: That virtuous men were like some herbs and spices, that give not their sweet smell, till they be broken and crushed." Bacon. Apophthegmes New and Old. 253.