The course takes a critical and analytical look at the role of science and technology in modern society. Questions addressed include: What is science? How does it differ from other disciplines? Which ethical responsibilities do scientists have to their peers and the public? How should society manage technological risk? What is the role of education, the media, industry and government on the progress of science and technology?
The course covers three main topics:
The course will contribute to the student's appreciation of the place and role of science in a modern society, as well as a broad insight into the way science and scientists are perceived and studied within other disciplines such as philosophy, ethics and sociology. Course literature ranges from classic works in philosophy of science and research ethics, to topical cases drawn from the international and national media. The analysis and discussion of case studies forms a central part of the course, particularly in research ethics. Teaching comprises both lectures and small group discussions.
PhD candidates from the University of Oslo should apply for classes and register for examinations through Studentweb .
MNSES9100 has limited intake capacity, and priority will be given to PhD candidates at the University of Oslo.
PhD candidates who have been admitted to another higher education institution must apply for a position as a visiting PhD student within a given deadline and will be informed about registration 3 weeks prior to the course's start.Prerequisites Formal prerequisite knowledge
No obligatory prerequisites beyond the minimum requirements for entrance to higher education in Norway.Overlapping courses
Teaching runs as an intensive course over 1-2 weeks with 20 hours of lectures and 12 hours of group discussions and seminars. 2-3 weeks after the course there will be a follow-up seminar for students to present, discuss and get feedback on their chosen essay topics.
NB! You have to participate in at least 80 % of the teaching to be allowed to take the exam. Attendance at lectures will be registered.Examination
A written essay of 6-9 pages.Examination support material
No examination support material is allowed.Grading scale
Grades are awarded on a pass/fail scale. Read more about the grading system .
Environmental Policy Statement
Pg .1 The United Parcel Service (UPS ) helps to secure. improve
and protect the environment and the safety of our employees
communities and customers. We help to secure the health of birds and
the environment by helping to create a safer. cleaner world for
everyone on this Earth. We are a business with more than 14 ,000 staff who are dedicated to the 188 nature reserves. We have 10 regional
offices all with only one vision to help keep the environment that is
rich in wildlife
to achieve this safer. cleaner vision our business
campaigns to help restore and manage habitats for birds and other
wildlife as well as research the problems that face the environment
The research our business utilizes helps us to understand the problems
and find practical solutions in solving them. Once they are solved we
then help to implement these solutions and promote them to others. We
help to manage nature reserves in for wildlife to flourish so
that people can enjoy them in the future. Our business also helps
people to share the knowledge and promote enthusiasm for the
We recognize that sharing this positive knowledge of the
environment benefits our work. With this in mind. we are very dedicated
in continuing the improvement of our environmental performance and
meeting our collective environmental responsibility. Our environmental
impact comes from. Greenhouse gas releases from energy use and travel
waste and water use. and the use of renewed resources. In to
minimize this impact on the environment we have helped to set the
following goals Advocate and sustain through our example and to achieve and inspire others Develop as well as implement environmental plans to
minimize the impacts and develop appropriate plans to achieve this
improvement Review our environment performance annually Raise awareness about the environment among our staff
as well as encourage them to practice Teach environmental issue responsibilities in employees job s. and employee training The United Parcel (UPS ) justifies the policy above for the
responsibility that lies with the management and the staff. The policy
and support of the management system will be subject to review -Works Cited-
Bhlem. Kenneth. PhD CIH Department of Environmental Health. Colorado
State University. Bastek. Neal Master 's Candidate English Department
Colorado State University HYPERLINK "http /writing .colostate .edu /index .cfm http /writing .colostate .edu /index .cfm.
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Science defines human life as a characteristic that exhibit a process with organization, growth, adaptation, etc.; however, ancient sages told people human life is extremely valuable and sacred, as a religious doctrine in the Ten Commandments: “Thou shalt not kill.” Moreover, when people talk about ethics, they will think about rules to differentiate right and wrong. It might be wise maxims of Confucius or religious beliefs. The most general way to define “ethics” is that “moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior” (American English in Oxford Dictionary). Bioethics is a pretty young interdisciplinary study, which is considered with ethical questions related to the relationships among human beings, animals, and environments in the late twentieth century. Based on this, bioethics derived three main subdisciplines, which are medical ethics, animal ethics, and environmental ethics. Although each sub-discipline has particular study area in bioethics, there still are overlaps of ethical considerations and approaches. This makes it difficult to easily discuss ethics questions such as stem cell research, xenotransplantation, the ethical status of animals and the ethical status of the environment. Further discussion about the vital issue of moral status solutions is necessary at the same time. In the rapid development of the natural sciences and biotechnology has greatly promoted better living conditions and improve the living standards of people around the world. On another hand, there are opposite consequences, like water and air pollution, nuclear waste, tropical deforestation, as well as large-scale livestock farming, as well as special innovative technologies, such as gene technology and cloning, resulting in doubts and even fears about the future of humanity. Blank legal system, for example, for abortion and euthanasia, many people are very concerned about another one of the reasons. Moreover, ethical issues, from specific conditions and dry, for example, genetic manipulation of food, they produce an intense public debate and serious public safety concerns and issues to consider in the past. As a discipline -specific approach applied ethics and moral reasoning depend largely on the findings in the life sciences, the main problem is that bioethics ethics, animal ethics and environmental ethics. Medical ethics
The history of medical ethics can go back to the beginning of Hippocratic Oath, which is an ancient oath to restrain medical behaviors of physicians possibly in fourth century BC (Edelstein, L. 2000, p. 3). Medical ethics if not only limited to the Oath; after thousands of years’ developments, it has become to a complete system of moral principles that concern the values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a result, this change has come out advances in medical fields and “affected nearly every aspect of clinical practice, from the confidentiality of patient records to end-of life issues” (Wells, K. R. 2007, p. 1528). For example, as Wells (2007) summarized, Dubler (2000) wrote an article including some topics of what he considered very important in medical ethics and “eHealth” is one on the list. “eHealth”, which means “The expansion of the Internet and other rapid changes in information technology have raised many questions about the confidentiality of electronic medical records as well as the impact of online education on medical training” (Wells, K. R. 2007, p. 1529). According to Clouser (1997), medical ethics has roles. The first one is “a consciousness-raising enterprise, alerting us to everything from grossest injustice to subtlest nuance” (Clouser, K. D. 1997, p. 94). There is a well-known case called “Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California” discussing the need to breach confidentiality in certain circumstances. The California Tarasoff case illustrates the difficulties in protecting patients’ confidentiality. In this case, a graduate student of UC Berkeley.
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BIOETHICS * Definition of terms: ETHICS Etymological source * Ethics is derived from the Greek word ethicos, which means “custom” or “character.” Vernacular context * Ethics is defined as the philosophical science that deals with the morality of human conduct. * ETHICS * Ethics is a study of good conduct, character, & motives & is concerned with determining what is good or valuable for all people. It goes beyond personal preferences to establish norms & standards upon which individuals, professions & societies agree. * Four Divisions of Ethics 1. Descriptive/ speculative Philosophy * What is the nature or essence or substance of reality? * Ex: Metaphysics (philosophical science of beings) 2. Normative Philosophy * What is good or right and what is bad or wrong action? * Ex: Ethics or Moral Philosophy * Four Divisions of Ethics 3. Practical Philosophy * Reflects on truth with due recourse to action * Ex: Logic 4. Critical Philosophy * What is truth? * Ex: Epistemology (the discipline that deals with knowledge and truth) * * Ethics * Philosophical scienceethics is a normative philosophy. * As a normative.
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These were the essay questions from the most recent (2012) A level GP exam here in Singapore.
Though it is dangerous to go “trend-spotting”, there are things we can learn from each year’s paper. Here are some thoughts on the 2012 questions.i. Fairness and Ethics
One major global concern in recent years has been “inequality”. Measures of income inequality suggest that the divide between rich and poor has been growing, even in the “developed” world. Anecdotal observations speak of the middle income squeeze, wage stagnation, hollowing out of middle income jobs, and calcification of social classes.
Inevitably, we are influenced by the world we live in, and this probably goes for the people who set the questions too. I think concerns over equality, ethics and fairness are quite clearly reflected in this paper. Have a look at the questions and see if you can spot the “equality, ethics and fairness” angle.
By my count, a majority (75%) of the questions are at least partially touched by these sentiments. These are questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12. Good answers to these questions would certainly include specific domain knowledge (in linguistics, the arts vs sciences debate, and the ethics of organ donations, for example). But they should also consider society’s moral standards and obligations.ii. The Humanities!
Students often hope that their year’s paper will be “kind”, in that favoured topics will appear. And indeed, a broad range of questions is usually set, with something for everyone.
The official General Paper syllabus, which can be downloaded here. notes that questions can include historical, social, cultural, economic, political, philosophical, and scientific topics, among others, and “will not necessarily be set on every topic area and will not be set in any particular order.”
Still, there are some recurring topic areas. It’s just that these tend to be the ones shunned by a large section of the student body. I’m talking about the “humanities” type questions. These encompass issues related to:
Many students would likely roll their eyes and look away, upon reading these questions. They’re certainly neither easy nor popular with the average student.
However, those same students might also have committed time to memorising facts about the environment or instances of media bias, only to find that the relevant essay questions don’t actually show up that often.
So perhaps it’s time to consider reading up a little on humanities issues, if only because they could be suitable (and frequently recurring) backup questions.iii. Blast from the past: resurgence of philosophical questions
To some observers, the 2012 essay paper had more philosophical questions than those in preceding years. It felt like a GP question list from perhaps ten to fifteen years ago.
Philosophical questions can be difficult to grapple with. They definitely go beyond “literal” interpretations. For a question like number 10 (can humour ever be serious), trying to find examples of “serious jokes” is unlikely to yield a good essay. We might want to think about the less lighthearted purposes of humour, like political caricatures and social protest slogans that use humour to convey serious messages. We should also analyse why there are times when humour can so effectively convey a point.
Questions 2 and 5 can definitely be answered literally, but they would have far more impact if students dwelled on what it means to be “influential”, and how we know if recognition is “deserved”. Neither question holds immediate “correct” answers. They will have to be pondered over the course of the essay.
We will explore philosophical questions in future posts. But for now, a recognition of the sometimes unsaid and barely implied elements in questions can go a long way toward helping a student secure a good grade.Related posts: