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Gouverneur Au Nom D Allah Critique Essay

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Arcitectural Critique Essay Research Paper Architectural CritiqueofRWE

Name and Date of Magazine

Architectural Record, June 1997.

Name and Location

The RWE AG Hochhaus building in Essen, Germany.

Name and Location of the Architect and Construction Contractor

The architects, Ingenhoven, Overdiek, Kahlen & Partner, are from Dusseldorf.

The contractor used was HOCHTIEF AG.

The RWE AG Hochhaus building is one in a series of environmentally friendly

structures that Germany has been adding to it’s cities. In and surrounding RWE are

offices, a cafetieria, meeting rooms, gardens, and dining rooms.

The architectural company was chosen because they won a contest in urban

design. Not only was thier design good for the environment, but it also would add life to

the slow downtown life.

Materials of RWE

The main structure of the building was made with reinforced concrete. There are

also many energy-saving materials that were used, such as curtain walls, double-glass

facades, exterior and interior safety glazing, “fish-mouth” louvers, double walls,

perforated aluminum blinds, exposed concrete slabs in the ceilings, and cold-water

Climate and Site Conditions

The weather conditions in Essen range from hot summer days, to very cold

winters.Many of the architectural components of this building also help with cooling and

heating depending on the temprature outside. Moveable facade panels can be opened to

let in fresh air on a nice day, and the ceilings’ concrete slabs absorb and release heat.

Because of these elements, RWE uses over 1/5 less energy then regular towers.

RWE was built specifically to help upgrade Essen and Germany as a whole,

without compromising the energy efficient area and codes, or demolishing the local

landscape. It was constructed in an already urban area of the city, so they had to build it

without much room to move, to avoid ruining the surrounding buildings.

RWE, when seen from certain angles, is almost semetrical. If seen with the

elevator shaft in the middle, either in the front or the back, the entire building could be

split perfectly down the center, creating two equal halves. The lower half of the structure,

for the first 15 or so floors, there is absolutly no huge variation, besides the elevator. It is

just a cylinder made up of small vertical rectangles, all in the same, repeated, uniform

rows. The top half of RWE, except for the very top floor and roof, is the same as the

bottom portion; little rectangles repeated over and over. Just over halfway up the building

is a space just taller then two floors, where the continuity is broken by larger, solid

looking rectangles, some with ventalation holes, others plain.

The mostly glass-walled building is quite transparent, yet at the same tim, at the

right angles, it reflects the outside weather, be it cloudy or a vibrent sunset. Other then a

hard metallic grey, the only color it has derives from those reflections on the outside.

A Similar Building

RWE reminds me of a building I used to live near in Bethesda. It, too, had an

extirior entirely of glass,although brown rather then clear, and it often reflected the sky

on its sides. However, this building was very square, not circular, and I doubt that it had

the same energy-saving materials in it that RWE does.

Architectural Record, June, 1997

Other articles

Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad

Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad

Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad ( _ar. عبيد الله بن زياد ) was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. Ziyad had maintained a brutal command over Basra and Kufa until his death in 673. At this point Ubayd Allah became governor and tried to continue his father's Draconian policies. He also minted coinage, which survives to this day.

In 680, Yazid I ordered Ubayd Allah to keep order in Kufa as a reaction to grandson of Prophet, Husayn ibn Ali 's popularity there. Ubayd Allah appointed his brother Uthman as deputy and marched to Kufa. Ubayd Allah executed Hussain ibn Ali’s cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel and put out the right eye of Hussain ibn Ali’s supporter Mukhtar. He was also one of the leaders of the army of Yazid I during the battle of Karbala .

Yazid left a vacuum in Iraq upon his death in 683. Ubayd Allah abdicated the governor's mansion in Basra and took up shelter with Mas'ud ibn Amr al-Azdi. The Azd were a Yemenite tribe who then supported the Umayyads against the rebellion of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. But Basra's new governor Abd Allah ibn al-Harith sided with Ibn al-Zubayr, and had Mas'ud killed the following spring; some traditions add, probably accurately, that Ubayd Allah and Mas'ud had complained about Ibn al-Harith's corruption (again, probably accurately - but the Basrans did not then care) with a view to regaining for Ubayd Allah his command. Ubayd Allah fled the city for Syria - leaving his wife and family behind. (Madelung pp. 301-303)

While Ubayd Allah was in Syria, he persuaded Marwan ibn al-Hakam not to recognise Ibn al-Zubayr. Meanwhile the messianic rebel Mukhtar wrested Kufa from Ibn al-Zubayr in 685. Seeing his chance, or so he thought, Ubayd Allah sent an army against Mukhtar. According to contemporary historian John bar Penkaye. Mukhtar met [Ubayd Allah] Ibn Ziyad's legions with a militia composed of 13000 lightly-armed freedmen on foot at the river Khazir near Nineveh. Ubayd Allah died in that battle. (Brock pp. 65-6)

Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad has been cursed upon by some Sunnis::"May Allah curse the son of Ibn Sumiyya (Ibn Ziyad, la’natullahi ‘alayh)!" [http://www.geocities.com/

* Ubayd-Allah (name)
* Curses in Islam
* Tabarra
* Sahaba

*Brock, Sebastian P. "Book XV of Ris Melle" in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 9. 1987. pp.52-67.
*Madelung, Wilferd. "Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr and the Mahdi" in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40. 1981. pp.291-305.

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Ubayd allah ben ziyad — Ubayd Allah[1] est le fils de Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan qui a été gouverneur de l Irak jusqu à sa mort en 673. Il y exerçait son autorité brutale au nom des omeyyades. Ubayd Allah lui a succédé et a continué sa politique. Sommaire 1 Biographie 1.1 … Wikipédia en Français

Ubayd Allah ben Ziyad — Ubayd Allah[1] est le fils de Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan qui a été gouverneur de l Irak jusqu à sa mort en 673. Il y exerçait son autorité brutale au nom des omeyyades. Ubayd Allah lui a succédé et a continué sa politique. Sommaire 1 Biographie 1.1… … Wikipédia en Français

Talha ibn Ubayd Allah — (طلحة بن عبيد الله) fut l un des compagnons de Mahomet (l un des dix promis au paradis). Il a joué un rôle important à la bataille de Uhud. Il est mort pendant la bataille du Chameau en décembre 656. Sommaire 1 Biographie 1.1 Famille … Wikipédia en Français

`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas — Abdullah ibn Abbas Title Hibr ul Ummah Born 618–619 CE[1] Died 687[2] … Wikipedia

`Abd Allah ibn Rawahah — ‘Abdullah ibn Rawahah ibn Tha‘labah (Arabic: عبدالله ابن رواحة‎) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Biography Ibn Rawahah was from the Arabian tribe, the Banu Khazraj.[1] At a time when writing was not a common skill he… … Wikipedia

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr — Abd Allah al Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير‎ ‘Abdallāh ibn az Zubayr; 624 692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr. He was the… … Wikipedia

Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan — ( ar. زياد بن أبي سفيان) (d. 673 AD) was a Muslim general and administrator and a member of the clan of the Umayyads. His parentage is obscure and controversial, which in the inimical Abbasid historiography has earned him the Patronymic Ibn Abihi … Wikipedia

Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan — (arabe : زياد بن أبي سفيان) est un général et administrateur musulman membre du clan des Omeyyades, mort à Kufa vers 673. Biographie D abord favorable à Ali, il se réconcilie avec le calife Muawiya en 664 qui le reconnait comme un frère. Il… … Wikipédia en Français

Hussein ibn Ali — This article is about Husayn ibn Ali (626–680). For the modern political figure (1852–1931), see Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. Husayn al Shahīd Imams of Shi a Islam … Wikipedia

Article Critique Essay: Online Paper Writing

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Essay on the State Governor (India)

Essay on the State Governor (India)

Article shared by Pragati Ghosh

Article 153 of the Constitution says, “There shall be a Governor for each State”. The Executive power of the State is vested in the Governor (Rajyapal).

The Government of the State is run in his name. He is appointed by the President of India and holds his office during his pleasure.

To be eligible for the appointment as Governor of a State a person should be a citizen of India and must have completed the age of 35 years. He must lot be a member of either House of the Parliament or of any State Legislature. If he is a member of any Legislature, he automatically v acates his seat on assuming the office of the Governor.

He is entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residence and shall be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by the Parliament by Law. The salary of the Governor has been fixed at Rs. 36,500 per month, plus such other allowances and privileges as may be deemed fit to a constitutional head of a State.

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His emoluments and allowances cannot be changed during his term of office. Every Governor and every person discharging the functions of the Governor, before entering upon his office, has to make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of the High Court of the State concerned, an oath Or affirmation in the prescribed form.

Appointment of the Governor of a State

The Governor of a State is appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal. He holds office during the pleasure of the President. There was a long and hot discussion on the appointment of the Governor in the Constituent Assembly. There were four alternatives before the Constituent Assembly for the appointment of the Governor. They were –

(i) Election by adult suffrage,

(ii) Election by the members of the Lower House or both the Houses of the State Legislature either by the system of proportional representation or otherwise,

(iii) Selection by the President out of a panel of four names submitted by the Lower House of the State Legislature, and

(iv) Appointment by the President.

Out of these four alternatives, the Constituent Assembly decided in favour of the nomination of the Governor by the President. The Draft Constitution contained the provision of direct election of the Governor by the people. In a parliamentary setup, a directly elected Governor was unnecessary.

The following reasons were advocated in accepting the existing practice of nominating the Governor by the President:

(a) The Governor in a State under the Parliamentary Systems to be a mere constitutional head. His position is a ceremonial one. The Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister is the real executive head.

Thus direct election of a Governor does not fit in a parliamentary system of Government. Explaining this point Dr. B. R. Ambedkar said in the Constituent Assembly, “The Governor has no function to which he is required to exercise either in his discretion or his individual judgment.

According to the principles of the Constitution, he is required to follow the advice of his Ministry in all matters. If the Governor has no power of interference in the internal administration of a Ministry which has a majority (in the Legislature), then it seems to me that the question whether he is elected or appointed is a wholly immaterial one”.

(b) A directly elected Governor may create a problem of political leadership. If he is directly elected, he cannot be above party politics. He may sometimes quarrel with the Chief Minister by claiming that he is also the popular leader of the people.

Direct election would further involve wastage of money, and energy. As K. M. Munshi pointed out in the Constituent Assembly, “Why waste money and energy in a huge election for a second rate man in the party as the head of the Government? It would mean also that the Governor will be subsidiary in importance to the Chief Minister as he would be his nominee. If this is going to be the case why this farce of election”.

A directly elected Governor may not be loyal to the Centre and the Constitution. The intention of the makers of the Constitution in creating the Office of Governor was to provide a link which would bind the Centre and the States in securing the constitutional propriety and national unity.

(c) The suggestion that the Governor should be directly elected by the State Legislature was not accepted by the Constituent Assembly. In this case he would be a pawn in the hands of the majority party in the State legislature.

This might hamper his impartiality and independence in taking sides with the Party which elected him. The scheme of appointment of the Governor by the President out of a panel of four names submitted to him by the State Legislature of the concerned State was also rejected as unsound.

In this case, factions and groups may come into play. Each group would like to see a member of that group to be placed on the panel. “This group affinity reflected in the selection of group men on the panel and the ultimate selection of one man from the panel might undermine party cohesion.

Further, if the President chooses one down in the line from the panel those who nominated the first name are bound to nurse a grouse against such a man. This may even lead to bad relations between the Governor and the State Cabinet”.

(d) An appointed Governor will suit to the requirements of the office more efficiently than an elected one. In this respect the Canadian Constitution had an influence over the makers of our Constitution. In the Constitution of Canada the Governors of the Provinces are appointed by the Governor-General and they hold office during the pleasure of the Governor-General.

The American practice is to elect the Governor by the people. In comparing between these two practices the makers of the Constitution decided in favour of the Canadian practice. As Alladi Krishnaswamy Aiyar said in the Constituent Assembly: “On the whole, in the interests of harmony, in the interests of good working, in the interests of sounder relations between the Provincial Cabinet and the Governor, it will be much better if we accept the Canadian model”.

Thus, the Constituent Assembly rightly decided that it would be worse than useless making the Governor’s office an elective one. Hence it favoured the system of nomination of the Governor by the President.

A convention has almost been established to appoint a non-resident of a State as its Governor. It is accepted that a resident of another State will have no political entanglements in the State and shall act with greater independence and impartiality.

Further, it helps to emphasize the sentiment of national unity and militate against the narrow spirit of linguism, parochialism and chauvinism which seems to make headway in some parts of our country. Another healthy convention that has developed is the practice of consulting the Chief Minister in appointment of the Governor of the State concerned.

This consultation eliminates the chance of imposing a person as a Governor who is not agreeable to the State concerned. It further, enables the selection of agreed candidate who may act as a wise counsellor and prudent adviser to the Council of Ministers.

Praise Be to Allah Essay - 820 Words

Praise Be to Allah

Khutbat al-Jumu`ah
January 16, 1998

by Shaykh Salah el-Din Mahmoud an-Nassar

Alhamdulillah was-salaat was-salaam `ala Rasulillahi.

Praise be to Allah, who promised his faithful slaves victory and support by saying, "And it was a duty incumbent upon Us to aid those who believed." I bear witness that there is none to worshipped save Allah, One, with no partners. He sent His Messenger Muhammad (s) with guidance and the religion of Truth to cause it to prevail over all religions even though the unbelievers may detest it." and I bear witness that our Master, Prophet, and Beloved Muhammad (s) is the Messenger of Allah, He is the Imam of the Pious, the Master of the Messengers and the Mercy to the worlds.

All praises and salutations of my Lord are upon you, my Master, Messenger of Allah and upon your Family and Companions, and those who are guided by the light of your sunnah until the Day of Judgment.

O Nation of Muhammad (s), we now continue our discussion of the fruits of this great month that has been honored by Allah (swt) with the Revelation of the Holy Qur’an, the constitution of this Nation, which resembles an envelope that contains this spiritual ‘ibadah which raises the da’imeen ("lasting ones") to the level of the angels, close to Allah. It is such a great form of worship that strengthens the will, when the human being controls his nafs and reigns over it with his mind (‘aql) with which Allah has given him precedence over the rest of his creation, He (swt) said,

"We have honored the sons of Adam, provided them with transport on land and sea; Given them for sustenance things good and pure, and conferred on them special favors, above a great part of our creation."

That is how the human being gains victory over his animal nature and desires, and rises to an angelic level, that Allah will boast of him in front of his angels, those nearest to Allah.

This great victory for mind and will over the nafs and desires serves as a vanguard for.

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