Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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to the World Tourism Organization, sustainability principles in tourism refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a positive balance must be created within these three aspects to ensure its short-term and long-term sustainability. Thus, Sustainable Tourism should: a) focus on the optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, keeping ecological processes and helping to conserve natural resources and biodiversity; b.) foster the socio-cultural relevance of host communities, protect their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and aspire to attain a high level of inter-cultural understanding and tolerance; and c.) promote active, long-term economic operations, offering socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are well distributed encompassing stable employment and revenue-generating opportunities and social services to host communities, and eradicating poverty (WTO, 2001).
In the past, Mass Tourism was characterized by economies of scale and it was primarily driven by the wants of consumers. There was a strong global critique of tourism in a conference held in Manila in 1980, that was led by a group of religious leaders, from developing countries, who were aware of the negative impact of tourism on local cultures. The 'Manila Statement' argued that, 'tourism does more harm than good to people and societies in the third world'. Tourism has an impact on the host country's economic development but it will also lead to massive social and cultural effects. Many of the host countries had positioned their local tourism sector as a major industry, as a catalyst of change and a tool for development.
However, several experiences had proven that unplanned growth and mismanagement of tourism can damage the natural and social-cultural environments of
many international tourism destinations (Hall & Lew, 1998).
Koson Srisang, argues that tourism:
does not benefit the majority of people. Instead it exploits them, pollutes the environment, destroys the ecosystem, bastardises the culture, robs people of their traditional values and ways of life and subjugates women and children in the abject slavery of prostitution â€¦ [It] epitomizes the present unjust world economic order where the few who control wealth and power dictate the terms (Srisang, 1992).
Recent trends, however, point to the fact that tourism is now marketed to different needs, incomes, time constraints and travel interests. The international tourists have evolved to become more experienced travellers, more educated, more destination oriented, more independent, more flexible and more environmentally conscious. As a matter of fact, an emerging segment New Tourism comprises international tourists who take into serious consideration the environment and culture of the destinations they visit.
This new Moral Tourism is expressed in a number of different types of organizations: federal governments, private companies and a plethora of non-governmental organizations. It has become a pervasive agenda (Smith, 2003). The commitment of global government to improve the tourism industry, and the tourist, took place during the 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio. The Agenda 21 document for the tourism industry had stipulated that, 'the travel and tourism industry has a vested interest in protecting the natural and cultural resources which are the core of its business'. The document added that travel and tourism should assist people in leading healthy and productive lives (UNCED, 1992).
This proposed harmony with nature will be attained once the tourism industry vows to contribute to the conservation, protection and restoration of the earth's ecosystem. Hence, 'environmental protection should be an inherent linchpin of the tourism development process' and 'tourism development should recognize and support the identity, culture and interests of indigenous peoples' (UNCED, 1992). Moreover, Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry is a motive for education of tourists. It suggests that publicity for the tourist should promote education for ethical tourism, including in-flight videos, magazine articles, and advice on sick bags.
The Agenda 21 Tourism perspective was well received by grass roots environmentalists, governments and NGOs. Most of the aid agencies around the world have increasingly financed NGOs engaged in ethical tourism development and they hope to establish a rural development that is sensitive to the natural environment and culture of recipient communities. For example, the UK Department for International Development created 'pro-poor' tourism as a means of alleviating poverty in the Third World. They also established programs to enlighten prospective tourists, by presenting a school video that portrays package tourists in the most unflattering light.
Another example is the efforts of the USAID, the aid agency of the United States government. The USAID fully supported the multiple, ethical claims of ecotourism by funding it as a means of generating limited development through ecotourism revenues in tandem with the conservation of the natural environment in the Third World. The agency also fostered an appreciation for the significance of conservation for the prospective tourist and their hosts.
Most countries which are tourist destinations have recognized that the best national tourism policy is drawn out through a national consultative process, and that they reflect the priorities and aspirations of its citizens. Hence, the different destinations and stakeholders will have different priorities, and that local policies and guidelines will need to be developed through multi-stakeholder processes to develop responsible tourism. Responsible Tourism pertains to efforts of all stakeholders to minimize negative economic, environmental, and social impacts; provide economic benefits for local people and enhance the well-being of host communities, advocates for better working conditions and access to the industry; reflects the aspirations of the local people in decisions that affect their lives and possibilities; keeps the world's diversity and generates positive contributions to the preservation of natural and cultural heritage (Butcher, 2002).
This type of responsible tourism encourages enjoyable experiences for tourists through more sensitive and significant connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental factors; enables full access for physically challenged people; and engenders respect between tourists and hosts, and generates local pride and confidence.
Several non-governmental organizations that are focused on the environment have also developed a commitment to 'sensitive', sustainable tourism development. For example, the Federation of Nature and National Parks in Europe, conceptualizes sustainable tourism as a project which 'sustains the environmental, social and economic integrity and well-being of natural, built and cultural resources in perpetuity'. Similar-minded NGOs include Kitemark organizations such as the Campaign for Environmentally Responsible Tourism and Green Globe. The former awards their Kitemark to tour operators in the UK that they deem to be ethical. Green Globe supports firms large and small to adapt to the concern over environmental impacts caused by tourists (Smith, 2003).
The popular demand for ethical tourism is featured in the mainstream media. For example, journalist Libby Purves explains that 'Tourists should not travel light on morals', and she presents the deleterious effects of this industry (The Times, July 10, 2001). The Guardian newspaper also asserts that Mass Tourism, 'wreaks havoc on the environment' and that despite attempts to clean up the industry, 'tourism is essentially and inescapably, environmentally destructive' (The Guardian, February 8, 2001). Green campaigner George Monbiot sums up the negative perspective of tourism by media advocates of ethical tourism when he stated: 'Tourism is, by and large, an unethical activity, which allows us to have fun at everyone else's expense.'
All of this recent public clamor about the negative impacts of tourism has led to coordinated efforts to push for a more environmentally aware and culturally acceptable form of tourism. A serious concern was raised about mass tourism that it was culturally insensitive and especially damaging to indigenous communities.
The World Tourism Organization's Global Code of Ethics emphasized the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism and reinforcing its commitment to equitable, responsible and sustainable world tourism. The main focus of the WTO was to make use of sustainable tourism to help eliminate poverty. Many companies also pushed for the adoption of clear Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies by companies, and the transparent reporting of achievements in meeting CSR objectives in company annual reports. Some tourism-related companies had carried out some projects related to assessing the environmental impacts of tourism and in harnessing tourism for local economic development, for the benefit of communities and indigenous peoples, and in managing the social impacts of tourism (WTO, 2003). There is a new Global Code of Ethics that aims to push all tourism stakeholders to acquire responsibility for implementing better forms of tourism. The Code of Ethics also includes a high degree of tolerance and respect for the diversity of religious, philosophical and moral beliefs of the international tourist destinations. The Code also respects diversity of our world's cultures, habitats and species and the wealth of cultural and natural heritage in the different places (World Tourism Organization, 2008).
The organizers of the Vancouver Winter 2010 Olympics has thoroughly planned and ensured that the international tourists who have come to the Olympic site will observe ethical tourism and preserve the beauty of Canada (Vancouver Winter 2010 Olympics website). All of the aspects of the Olympic activity from the preparation of venues, the design of venues, the delivery of goods and services in the village, to the security precautions of the Olympic Games were subjected to environmental assessment and sustainability parameters.
The organizers have hired consultants on environmental sustainability and people management. For example, each of the people at Vancouver 2010 competition venue underwent several levels of environmental assessment to ensure that it is up to international standards. The complexity of the assessment process varies greatly, ranging from simple in-house evaluations to formal, comprehensive and harmonized federal/provincial reviews, depending on the project's characteristics.
Some of these projects triggered federal and provincial environmental assessment legislation. For example, the organizers invited the Department of Canadian Heritage (pch.gc.ca), the Responsible Authority, as part of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) process. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency provided Canadian Heritage with advice on the review processes. Moreover, the organizers also relied on the expertise of the management staff of the Province of British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office to provide guidelines on their sports facilities. All of the Olympic venues underwent a CEAA and a BC Parks Impact Assessment process.
The Venue designs for each particular sports field were also built and enhanced by the results of the assessments, generating first public and stakeholder input. The whole process of construction was subjected to an environmental assessment to gain a proper perspective of the different projects in a positive manner; taking into account the previous utilization of the area, the potential impacts during the construction and competition phases, and the post-Games legacy. The positive results are that the sports facilities that will be of better use for communities for years to come.
VANOC celebrates leading examples of innovation in sustainability with the launch of the Vancouver 2010 Sustainability Star program. The program recognizes initiatives by Games partners, sponsors and VANOC that demonstrate positive and measurable social, economic and environmental impacts.Â To focus on these impacts, the organizers implemented a "Star Program". The stars are grouped by their chief benefit, be it environmental, social or economic; however, overlap between benefits exists in many cases. The local Canadian businessmen were given priority in presenting the goods and services needed for the Olympic Games during the Bids, thus fostering economic growth for local businesses.
The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) also implemented ethical consumption for the fans and visitors who joined the Olympics. The VANOC campaigned for the sale of a pair of Red Mittens as a way to support the expenses of the Canadian Olympic team and as a way to show support for the Winter Games. Approximately 3.5 million pairs of mittens were sold during the five-month campaign. Hudson's Bay Company and CTV, CANADA's Olympic Network supported the Red Mittens campaign. The Red Mittens provided a fun and unique way for Canadians and all Games fans to connect with Vancouver 2010 and support Canadian athletes. The revenues from every pair of Vancouver 2010 Red Mittens sold goes to the funding of the Own the Podium 2010 initiative, which provided Canadian athletes with top Games-related equipment and training.Â Any additional funds raised through the Red Mittens campaign will support various Winter Games athlete- and sport-based initiatives. Another exemplary effort of the Olympics organizers was to achieve Aboriginal participation in the planning and hosting of the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. The organizers developed strong relationships with the Aboriginal peoples - First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The Aboriginal participation is an important component of the sustainability mandate and is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the value it brings to the Olympic Movement. The Four Host First Nations encouraged the Aboriginal people across Canada to participate in the 2010 Winter Games as athletes, volunteers, employees, entrepreneurs, artists and performers, spectators or cultural ambassadors.â€¨ These Nations - the Lil'wat, Musqueam, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh - have been involved in the Bid process. They also became participants in the planning of the Winter Games. The International Olympic Committee had adopted Agenda 21: Sport for Sustainable Development, that aims to foster the inclusion of women, youth and Indigenous peoples in the Games. Moreover, the organizers also sought the participation of the Greater Vancouver Urban Aboriginal Strategy Steering CommitteeÂ on sports, economic development and awareness initiatives to engage the urban Aboriginal community. The VANOC established an Aboriginal Sport Talent IdentificationÂ and Sport FitÂ events targeted at the urban Aboriginal community. The chief purpose of the event was to spread the Games spirit and offer the community with important information about how it can get involved in the 2010 Games.
The VANOC also promoted the nearby tourist spot of Yukon. The government of Yukon spent 3m Canadian dollars (£1.9m) trying to educate people about their territory during the Winter Games, promoting it as a great place to travel, invest and do business. The place is very appealing for Americans and European tourists: wide open spaces, no people. It features a natural environment and the access to wildlife in their own habitat. It is a challenging experience. There government sent out publications for tourists to educated them how not to disturb the wildlife and to have respect for the environment. The Yukon government has implemented strict rules for tourism operators governing waste disposal. The tourists are encouraged to practice the mentality of leaving no trace. The aim is to respect the natural environment (BBC News, March 12, 2010). The VANOC invited performers from Yukon so as to promote this tourism site for the Olympic visitors and fans.
The VANOC also utilized the excess medical supplies that were unused after the Olympic Games to help those who needed help. As a gesture of charity and friendship, approximatelyÂ 2,000Â poundsÂ of surplusÂ athleteÂ medical andÂ dental supplies and equipmentÂ fromÂ theÂ 2010Â Winter GamesÂ were sent to Canadian medical teams inÂ Haiti as part of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Truce program and as a legacy of the Games.Â The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) has partnered together with the Canadian Forces to donate and deliver the much needed medical supplies. This donationÂ was worth an approximately $125,000 CAD in value for medical and dental supplies to the region. The VANOC together wwith its business partners also gave a $300,000 CAD donation to UNICEF to support relief efforts inÂ Haiti.
The Canadian government had realized the importance of good governance and political stability in providing the context for responsible tourism during the Winter Olympics. The government initiated the establishment of stable partnerships at a local level, and to the empowerment of local communities. The government determined that the management of tourism requires the participation of all public, private and non-governmental organizations. In order to protect the cultural, social and environmental integrity of each Olympic venue, the VANOC government implemented limits to tourism development.
An example of the limits imposed during the Winter Games was the guidelines covering the delivering of Goods and Services. A detailed map illustrating these restrictions was made available on the Host City website. Truck companies were advised to look for some alternate locations. They were asked to consider laneways, alleys and the many privately operated parks in the city. The 24-hour delivery periods and extended garbage removal hours were removed in Downtown Vancouver. Temporary truck routes in Vancouver were implemented starting March 21. The overnight delivery periods and municipal delivery permits were revoked. The VANOC started to manage all required deliveries. In some cases, VANOC brought in products or suppliers for its venues based on its sponsor agreements with Coca-Cola, Molson and Vincor products. All of the delivery and logistics companies that previously delivered goods and services in the area were advised to coordinate with the VANOC. Special protocols were put in place.Â Some roads used for their deliveries were closed during the Games for security reasons. As a result, deliveries to these properties will require special protocols to ensure access to the area.Â In these instances, the deliveries were done only during specified hours during the day so as not to disrupt the Games. The delivery vehicles were required to carry special permits to ensure a high level of security.
The VANOC fostered dialogue, partnerships and multi-stakeholder processes involving government, business and local communities to foster both interdependent, and similar responsibilities. They showed that sports tourism is managed well for sustainability at the destination level.
Butcher, Jim. (2002). The Moralisation of Tourism: Sun, Sand and Saving the World. New York: Routledge.
Griffiths, J. 'Tourism is Bad for our Health', Guardian, 8 Feb. 2001.
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(Srisang, K. 'Third World Tourism: the New Colonialism', In Focus (bulletin of campaigning NGO Tourism Concern), No. 4, 1992, pp. 2-3.
Pope John Paul, cited in L. Purves, 'Tourists Should Not Travel Light on Morals', The Times, 10 July 2001
Cited in WTO, The British Ecotourism Market, special report no. 11, World Tourism Organisation, Madrid, 2001.
Smith, Mick. (2003). The Ethics of Tourism Development. New York: Routledge.
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit). (1992). Agenda 21 on Tourism: Towards Environmentally Sustainable Development, London: World Travel and Tourism Council.
Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics website. Available at http://www.vancouver2010.com/
World Tourism Organization. 2008, Community Tourism Practices, Spain: World Tourism Organization.
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Yanchyk, Brandy. "Canada's secret land Yukom woos tourists." BBC News, March 21, 2010.
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Urbanization in the Kurdistan Region - Introduction Urbanization: The process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities (Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary). Sustainable development: The ability of an activity or development to continue in the long term without undermining that part of the environment which sustains it (Scottish Natural Heritage, 1993). The process of urbanization and the population growth across the world has been increasing over the last 40 years, and it is expected to happen in the developing countries' urban areas. [tags: Sustainable Development]
Sustainable Development and Population Control - Sustainable Development and Population Control A nineteen year old pregnant Chinese girl is forced to abort because she is "too young" to have a child. Iran, an Islamic nation, instructs religious leaders to promote contraception as a social duty. A Norwegian international banker worries about "migratory tensions" that would engulf his nation with waves of third world immigrants. A Los Angles Times article decries the lack of an official United States population policy. What do these statements share in common. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Topics]
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The Implementation of Sustainable Development - The Implementation of Sustainable Development In November 1992, more than half of all living Nobel Prize winners signed a document called "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity" that began with this stark statement: Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course. Human activities inflict harsh and often irreversible damage on the environment and on critical resources. If not checked, many of our current practices put at serious risk the future we wish for human society. … No more than one or a few decades remain before the chance to avert the threats we now confront will be lost and the prospects for humanity immeasurably diminished. [tags: Environment Pollution Ecology Essays]
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Sustainable Development: Food, Natural Resources, and Gender - FE4412 – Sustainable Development: Food, Natural Resources & Gender Sustainable Development: General Overview As defined by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” This Report brought the need for sustainable development to the attention of the over twenty years ago and as I will explain it is becoming more relevant to us as the human race starts to realise that we are living on a finite planet which will run out of the resources to support us eventually. [tags: survival, sustainability, environment, economy]
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Public Opinion Revolving Around Sustainable Development - This paper highlights the public opinion revolving around sustainable development and how it has changed over the last 50 years. It incorporates factors like the Brundtland report, Kyoto Protocol and proposed projects to help make a sustainable future. ‘’Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’’ (Purvis and Grainger 2004) is the most common definition of sustainable development. Over the last fifty years there have been many variations on public and government opinion of sustainable development as a worldwide community and there are many factors that have influenced these attitudes. [tags: Environment ]
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Sustainable Development Can Reduce Global Warming - "Global warming is too serious for the world any longer to ignore its danger or split into opposing factions on it." -- Tony Blair, speech, Sept. 27, 2005 According to the latest scientific data there is a direct human influence on the climate system. An upward trend in global temperatures can be clearly seen over the last three decades. The effects of this human induced climate destabilization can be seen in the present and are projected to worsen over time, regardless of the level of carbon emitted into the future. [tags: Climate Change, 2015]
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Sustainable Development in Business - Sustainable Development in Business EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is aimed at analyzing and studying the advancement and the operation strategies for sustainable development. Information was gathered, using business articles, on the strategies and techniques required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is not only important and essential for environmental protection and socially well-being, but also for certain economic goals a business may want to achieve. [tags: Papers]
Sustainable Development - Sustainable Development By the year 2200 there will be a lot more people living on this planet then there are now. Estimates range anywhere from 15 to 36 billion people. Where will these people live. How will they live. The answer is sustainable development. Sustainable development, "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. " It also, "requires meeting the basic needs of all peoples and extending to them the opportunity to fulfill their aspirations for a better life. [tags: essays research papers]
Sustainable Economic Development of Birmingham - The creation of a strong and sustainable economy in any city requires a numerous variation of factors and a careful balance of strategic policies made by the city council, local planners or other vital participants in the building of a successful urban dynamic. With the dramatic decline of the manufacturing sector in many of Britain’s major cities such as Birmingham, a strong and sustainable economy has almost been out of reach. Unemployment and the great suburban decentralisation of residences have caused the heart of major cities in Britain to suffer and decline economically. [tags: Economics]
Sustainable Development - Sustainable Development Sustainable development was defined in the Bruntland Report in 1983 as “development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Dresner, 31) This is a satisfactory definition for most people, however, when it comes down to the policies of sustainable development, the definition given proves dangerously vague. Interpretations that stem from it can range from ‘do not touch any of the earth’s natural resources ever again’ to ‘use them up as quickly as possible.’ There are three main philosophies behind sustainability: weak, strong, and environmental. [tags: Environment Ecology Essays Papers]
Sustainable Development - Sustainable Development The term sustainable development was introduced in the 1987 report "Our Common Future". The World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Different communities are organizing themselves to promote this ideology. They are combating the pressure of corporations’ economic practices, which damage the environment and living conditions. [tags: Sociology Conservation Agriculture Essays]
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The Research Support Facility is a Green Building - A Sustainable Leed Platinum Building A sustainable development could be defined as a self-sufficient project that can meet actual and future demand without compromising future resources. A sustainable development can be defined as the Research Support Facility in Golden, Colorado. This ultra-high performance building incorporates several design innovations, renewable strategies and excellent performance, so high, that it will only use 50% of the energy it will use if designed under traditional methods. [tags: Characteristics of a Sustainable Development]
Brunei’s Effort in Achieving Sustainable Development: Strategies and Challenges - World Commission on Environment and Development (1987, p.43 as cited in Baker, 2006) defined ‘sustainable development’ as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. It is a crucial necessity for Brunei Darussalam to become a sustainable country. This is for the sake of Brunei in managing its natural resources while in unison promoting economic prosperity at the best. Although Brunei is still in its initial stage, certain sectors have made remarkable progress in the area of sustainability. [tags: Environment ]
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To What Extent Can the Problems of Urbanization be Met by a Policy of Sustainable Development - Introduction With the development of urbanization, an increasing number of social problems have emerged. These problems will decelerate the urban development, however, there are many ways in which sustainable development can reduce the impact of these urbanization problems. “Sustainable development seeks to improve the quality of human life without undermining the quality of our natural environment” (Adams, W.M. 1999). Actually, sustainable development can partly solve the urbanization problems, for it can reduce the impact of the problems such as traffic jam, housing shortage and severe pollution, but it is difficult to completely solve these problems in a short time. [tags: Urban Population, Pollution]
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Environment and Feminism - Ecofeminist Theory and Sustainable Development - Ecofeminist Theory and Sustainable Development "People have to be able to work together if they are to realize the shared destiny and to preserve a habitable environment for generations to come." Albert Bandura, 1995 Bandura's words epitomize the spirit of environmental education and its challenges of community cooperation, trans-generational communication and sustainable development. The success of these challenges depends on the ability to pass on knowledge about the environment to future generations in order for them to better understand how to maintain a sustainable relationship with nature. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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It’s Time for a Supranational Sustainable Development Authority - It’s Time for a Supranational Sustainable Development Authority The ingenuity of man that lead to the unprecedented global development of the twentieth century would certainly not have been possible without the earth’s rich natural resources. In this century, Earth has endured a population explosion, yet still has the agricultural capacity to nourish a global population of over six million people. At the same time, the quality-of-life in industrialized nations is perceived to have risen in tandem with the availability and affordability of mass-produced consumer products made possible by the resourceful use of raw materials and energy. Many trumpet this situation that man has created, a. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]
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Indigenous Irrigation Knowledge and Sustainable Development in Asia - Indigenous Irrigation Knowledge and Sustainable Development in Asia David Groenfeldt suggests that village communities need to organize and stabilize their own resources, initially, which will strengthen the development capacity of the village and help to establish an independent institution. Groenfeldt argues that the classic development solution of bringing in and applying new ideas is less efficient in the long run because local indigenous ways are already established and being practiced. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Papers]
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Development of sustainable career paths for employees - Finding and retaining high performing employees is a challenge all business organizations face. Employees search for jobs where they can be successful, appreciated, and have the opportunity to grow and advance. Effective employers develop career plans that are easy to follow, sustainable, customizable, and provide rewards and recognition when appropriate to entice and retain high performing employees. Using competency models management and human resources can define attributes of top performers that are important to the company for short term and long term success. [tags: Labor]
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Development of Sustainable Technologies and Their Adoption In the World Wide Industries - Last decade was dedicated to the development of sustainable technologies and their adoption in the world wide industries. The main purpose of the sustainable technologies was to protect of the environment and to decrease the harmful effect of the economy over the nature and its resources. Nowadays organizations such as European Union are forcing their members to apply to their leading industries more sustainable technologies. Such interference, first in the domestic policies, and the second in the private business, seems unethical to some people. [tags: Technology]
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Environmental Law and Sustainable Development in the Toothfish Fishery of Heard Island and McDonald Island. - Introduction: This paper will examine legal frameworks utilized by Australia to address overfishing in the Southern Ocean, specifically the Patagonian toothfish fishery around Heard Island and McDonald Islands, which is expected to potentially collapse within several years because of illegal fishing. This area is within Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone but is more than 4,000 kilometers from the nearest port, thus placing it far beyond the range of regulators and law enforcement. The area is also within the Southern Ocean, which falls under international legal frameworks, specifically the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the United Nations Convention. [tags: Ecology]
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Views on Sustainable Development with Specific Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa - Views on Sustainable Development with Specific Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa Allen (1980) puts forward his definition of sustainable development as "development that is likely to achieve lasting satisfaction of human needs and improvement of the quality of human life." The important phrase to consider in this definition is "likely to achieve". This concept in theory can be effective and implemented successfully, however we can critically discuss the concept in terms of what and who is to be involved, with relevance to the world that we live in today. [tags: Papers]
Economic Networking—Exploring Alternatives for Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa - Economic Networking—Exploring Alternatives for Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa INTRODUCTION The history of European aid intervention in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states has traditionally acted to reinforce the hierarchical distinction between the “developed” and the “developing” world. The series of Lome Conventions which granted preferential trade agreements between these groups of countries have proved ineffective in encouraging economic sustainability in the ACP states, and although the ACP includes most of the Least Developed Countries (LLDCs) in the world, the agreements have been criticized as being unfair in the global context. [tags: Essays Papers]
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Internet of Everything and Internet of Things: The Impact on Business - Introduction The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the impact Internet of everything (IoE) and internet of things (IoT) has and will continue to have on businesses, such as how it is going to improve productivity, reduce costs and enable businesses to get the most out of their assets and improve societies by enabling better water management, improve transport system, reduce crime and create more employment and business opportunities. It also discusses the changes we are about to experience like growth in economies, significant increase in the total amount of data and information in existence so that knowledge can be attained and how should people prepare for that change and we will al. [tags: Health Care, Sustainable Development]
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Change Management - This assignment will discuss the response of the Canadian business market to the force of sustainability. Sustainability includes both sustainable development and corporate sustainability. When sustainable development and corporate sustainability are valued in a company, it aligns the views of various stakeholders, which can lead to financial success. In the past, sustainability was not valued, mainly because of a lack of knowledge and an aversion to the costs of sustainability reporting. However, with increased consumer awareness and the promotion of environmental and social value, more companies are moving towards a state of sustainability. [tags: Sustainable Development, Corporate Sustainability]
Brief History of Sustainability - A Brief History of "Sustainability" “[M]odern industries still operate according to paradigms that developed when humans had a very different sense of the world” (McDonough and Braungart 26)—when resources were thought to be infinite. In 1972 the UN convened the Conference on the Human Environment where “the global community acknowledged that more exploration was needed of the inter-relationships between the environment and socio-economic issues of poverty and underdevelopment. Thus the concept of sustainable development emerged in the 1980s in response to a growing realization of the need to balance economic and social progress with concern for the environment and the stewardship of natura. [tags: Environment Economy Sustainable Development]
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Wetland Ecosystem - 1. Introduction Wetland ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems on this planet delivering massive goods and services to human society. However, due to poor awareness of their values and underestimation of their contribution, many wetlands have been converted to farmland or urban areas, or influenced by pollution due to agricultural and industrial activities. Consequentially wetland ecosystems have severely declined and degraded globally during the past decades. In order to restore and protect wetlands, hence ensure a sustainable supply of wetland goods and services, it is important to recognize their values. [tags: Environment, Sustainable Development]
Principles of Community Development in Relation to Sustainable, Community Based Natural Resource Management - Introduction Community development pulls together the idea of community and development. Many communities have failed to attain development due to lack of knowledge in the principles that need to be applied when pursuing developmental goals. The knowledge and application of the principles that define community development is fundamental for every development-oriented individual and practitioner since it puts the interested parties in the right track to sustainable development. A community by definition entails integration of various entities (human beings and environment) that make one unit called ‘community’ and in this unit there is interaction among human beings themselves, and human bein. [tags: Functional Inclusion, Unsustainable Extractions]
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Development of a Sustainable Democracy in East Germany and Poland - Development of a Sustainable Democracy in East Germany and Poland Linz and Stepan list and describe a set of five elements that determine a consolidated democracy. Civil society, political society, rule of law, usable state of bureaucracy, and an institution of economic society all interact in complex ways to bring about democratic consolidation in countries. This paper focuses and emphasizes the interactions between the ^development of a free and lively civil society. [and] an institutionalized economic society. [tags: Political Politics]
Permaculture ands Sustainable Design - Sustainable design steadily becomes the architecture catch phrase of the day, being thrown around to make us aware that everything we “design” has an environmental burden. Many designers, architects and builders have installed the “idea of green” into their buildings to demonstrate a potential to improve performance and reduce costs through sustainable strategies. Despite all this one fact remains, that is the enviable depletion of fossil fuels, and without a major overhaul of our society, our economy and our politics, the ideas of “sustainable design” are just band-aids on the bigger problem. [tags: Definition, Sustainable, Culture]
Sustainable Architecture: Meeting the Needs of this Generation while Preserving the Needs of Future Generations - Sustainable architecture is a specific kind of design which focuses on meeting the needs of these generations without compromising the needs of those generations to come. Architects from around the world have become aware of the impact that society has on the environment, and have created sustainable architecture in order to help preserve the environment, but at the same time, create comfortable spaces that are ideal for living and are aesthetically pleasing. This innovative architecture has attracted many architects from all over the world, in order to implement these new structures into every day life. [tags: Sustainable, architecture, future,]
A Sustainable Economy for The Indian State of Odisha - The Indian state of Odisha, formerly known as Orissa, is located on the eastern coast of India. It is surrounded on one side from the Bay of Bengal and on the other side shared its borders from many other Indian states like West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. The modern state of Orissa was established in the year 1st April, 1936 and it was on 13th April, 1948 that Bubneshwar got selected as the state’s capital replacing Cuttack. In order to go about talking about formulating a sustainable livelihood policy for Odisha considering its inherent natural resources and impending climate change we need to start from the state’s bounty of natural resources and its topography. [tags: Sustainable Living]
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A sustainable for the Disabled - Introduction (what /why): When environmental problems became global in scale in the late 20th century, people started to understand that sustainable development is the development that just meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. With a long history and experiencing process of sustainability which is tracing human-dominated ecological systems from the earliest civilizations to the present, people eventually figure out that it requires the reconciliation of environmental, social equity and economic demands for the goal of sustainability, and this three pillars of sustainability are not mutually exclusive and can be mutual. [tags: Home Design, Construction Adaptability]
Economic Development in Atlanta Georgia - Atlanta Georgia is a city filled with innovators, hustlers, and entrepreneur. Atlanta is a vibrant city full of economic opportunities. The city is home to many thriving fortune 500 companies like HD Supply Inc, UPS and Coca-Cola. Also, Atlanta is a hub for development projects like the Atlanta Streetcar project And Centennial Olympic Park…. These projects show a tiny glimpse of the many economic programs in Atlanta and all of them have a positive impact on the progress of the city. In Atlanta, officials come and go with development projects to make the city an amazing place to live, work in, and visit. [tags: development projects, business, park]
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Analysis of Singapore's Economic Development - 1 INTRODUCTION This paper will first describe how two nations sharing similar history went on their different paths in developing their economies. Then, this paper would describe three components that helps maneuver Singapore towards outstanding economic development based on 3 principles 1) leadership 2) strategy and 3) implementation. Thirdly, negative implications that may have been brought about by the development policies will be discussed in Section 4. Lastly, the conclusion would be underlined. [tags: Macroeconomics, Economic Development]
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The Impacts of Sustainable Tourism and Their Influence on Resort Management - Food products are going organic, tourists are becoming more eco-conscious and the trend of tourism is changing too. This is due to the rapid depletion rate of natural resources; much faster than what mankind can replenish or renew. Hence, in order to preserve our environment, culture and tradition, people are trying to find ways to sustain our resources. Lately, the buzz word that is frequently mentioned in tourism industry is sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism is tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities (UNWTO, 2005). [tags: tourism industry, culture, environment, developmen]
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Palestine NGOs as Effective Development Players - Palestine NGOs as Effective Development Players Introduction During the past 60 years, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) became one of the most dominant phenomena all over the world, that affect the development paradigms and processes in developed countries as well as in the developing world. Certainly, NGOs has a significant role in supporting different developmental aspects, such as promoting democratisation, civil society empowerment, or resources management. However, this phenomenon should be analysed critically to examine its real position, legitimacy, and practical impact on promoting sustainable development on the ground. [tags: Development Sector, Non Profit Organizations]
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Agile Development Methodology - Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Agile development methodology 2 Agile development methodology Agile Manifesto 3 Agile Manifesto Advantages and disadvantages of agile software development 4 Advantages and disadvantages of agile software development Conclusion 5 Bibliography 6 Agile development methodology Agile development is a system development strategy where the system developers are given the competence to choice from a wide selection of appropriate tools and techniques that can be used when accomplishing a certain task on hand. [tags: Agile Manifesto, Software Development]
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The Ethical Principles of a Sustainable Lifestyle - Discuss the concept of sustainability. What ethical principles are parts of a sustainable lifestyle. Why should we consider sustainability as a guiding principle of our environmental philosophy. Concept of Sustainability We live in a beautiful world and have many valuable resources and beautiful views all around us almost everywhere we go. Our world supports not only us, but many creatures that are all interwoven and connected to each other in unique and important ways. The greatest binding point that all of us on the Earth have with one another is that world we live in sustains us in our existence. [tags: resources, population, change]
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Sustainable and Successful Innovation - Today, almost all organizations face a dynamic environment characterized by rapid technological change, shortening product life cycles, and globalizations. Organizations need to be more creative and innovative than before to survive, to compete, to grow, and to lead (Jung et al. 2003; Tierney et al. 1999). An issue is that, for many sectors in general and manufacturing sectors in particular innovation seems unpredictable, mysterious, and apparently unmanageable (Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 2005). [tags: Business, Iraqi Manufacturing System]
Sustainable Cities? - Earth is a planet full of resources that organisms have shared over millions of years. The problem is that human activity is increasing pollution and carbon footprint, largely on the last years. How is this affecting us and other organisms. To find the answer to this question there has to be a clear definition about carbon footprint and pollution. Carbon footprint is the amount of gases that are released during human activities, gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide (“Carbon Footprint”). [tags: carbon, pollution, enviroment]
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Sustainable Supply Chains - Sustainable supply chains (SSC) are a process, which employ purchasing policies and procedures that assist sustainable development at the centers of tourism. This aspect of tourism is particularly vital to implementing feasible tour operator practices. The final tourist product featured in both glossy brochures and enticing websites must be considerate of viable sustainable supply chain management to create long lasting destinations for the consumer. This report will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of SSCs, and attempt to assess how SSCs are used as a popular management tool in the tourism industry. [tags: Benefits, Disadvantages, Management Tool]
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Sustainable Health Education - The concept of sustainability derives from principles grounded in developing and maintaining a harmonious environment, society, and economy. Regardless of the discipline, these three areas must be the focus of concentration, as they are not mutually exclusive of one another. Above all, education must be recognized as the chief factor in achieving sustainability. Dr. Rosalyn McKeown’s Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit is based on the notion that success depends on a community’s willingness and ability to integrate education with sustainable efforts. [tags: Health ]
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Urban Sprawl vs the Sustainable City - Recently there have been many discussions about urban sprawl due to its negative impacts on society and the natural environment. However, looking at the aims of the sustainable city project it seems clear urban sprawl may be an obstacle Doubting this, i asked myself “to what measure is urban sprawl a problem to the aim of the sustainable city”. In this essay I will try to explain the aims of the sustainable city as well the process of urban sprawl and its limitations and relate how urban sprawl directly affects those objectives. [tags: urban sprawl, natural environment]
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Depleting Sustainable Resources - Depleting Sustainable Resources In 1991, Somali had over 280,000 deaths by starvation after a five -year war depleted their food resources (Webersik 48). This developing country is one of many to experience similar catastrophes because of war. Developed countries such as Norway, United States, and Australia rely on natural resources and food resources to maintain a high standard of living (Mintzberg 4). Developing countries depend on these resources to survive. Competition between rich nations for scarce resources directly impacts the developing countries sustainability (Webersik 48). [tags: Political Science]
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Technological Product Innovation for Sustainable Energy - Technological product innovation for sustainable energy in buildings generally comprises two categories of technical solutions: energy-efficient technologies, and renewable energy technologies (Brindle et al. 2007). Energy efficiency is the use of less energy than the industry standard for ventilation, heating, cooling, an artificial lighting to fulfil desired thermal comfort and task requirement of building occupants (Intrachooto, 2002). Energy efficiency often take two forms: reducing the demand for energy, and using fossil energy as efficiently as possible. [tags: Energy ]
Business is Compatible With Sustainable Growth and Environmental Well Being - Several studies have been commissioned to look into ways of modern business values (such as technology) are incompatible with sustainable growth and environmental well-being. People provide a broader approach to the introductory analysis of modern business problems and principles by their method of decribing business in a general way and relating into society as a whole. Business world is changing too fast. Globalization, technology, markets, new competitors, new activities are all causing quicker changes in our corporate environments. [tags: Business Ethics]
What Makes Aveda’s Products Sustainable and Organic - Aveda is a leading cosmetic company which manufactures makeup, perfume, skin care and hair products. Aveda’s head office location is 400 pheasant Ridge Drive Blaine, Minnesota 55449 U.S.A. Aveda’s telephone number is (612) 783-4000. Horst Rechelbacher founded Aveda in 1978. Aveda started with one product shampoo that Rechelbacher had created in his kitchen sink leading to the development of conditioners and all other products. Aveda is now a successful business with 5000 employees, and has store locations in 33 different countries and 7231 beauty shops. [tags: aveda, cosmetics, makeup]
A Sustainable Lifestyle - According to Miller and Spoolman the three principles of sustainability are solar energy, biodiversity, and chemical cycling (2010, p.5). Solar energy is the perfect energy because the sun always shines. Everyday we rely on solar energy so why not make solar energy work to our advantage. I can apply solar energy to my lifestyle by having items like solar panels installed on my home. With solar panels I will be able to generate my own clean energy therefore decreasing my reliance on the fossil fuels that currently supply my house. [tags: Environmental Issues]
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Sustainable Construction - SUSTAINABILITY "Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs." -- United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION The construction industry has been notorious for contributing to landfills and depleting raw materials. The industry contributes 28% of landfill material from construction and demolition waste. The industry consumes 40% of the world's natural resources, many of which may be depleted within 50 years. [tags: Geology Environment]
Proposal for a Sustainable Forestry Management Policy - Proposal for a Sustainable Forestry Management Policy Forests are an invaluable natural resource with multiple conflicting uses. When left to stand, forests help conserve biodiversity, stabilize the environment and control erosion; when logged, they provide building materials, fuel and agricultural land for human use. The challenge is to find an equilibrium between these uses: in other words, to make the transition toward sustainable forestry management. Unfortunately, poverty has driven people in developing countries to clear-cut large tracts of land, while instability and corruption have rendered developing country governments powerless to stop illegal logging and trade in illegal forest. [tags: Proposal Proposition Essays]
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